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Advanced Vocabulary, Conditionals, and Modal Verbs

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  • adopt an approach to
  • analyse
  • conduct
  • demonstrate the possibility that
  • field of study
  • major breakthrough
  • observe
  • procedure
  • process data
  • provide evidence
  • test a theory
  • variety of sources
  • guinea pig
  • light years ahead
  • quantum leap
  • rocket science
  • side effects
  • trial and error
  • come about
  • come to light
  • discomfort
  • distinguish
  • make out
  • mutation
  • personal hygiene
  • pick up
  • treatment
  • widespread
  • bring up
  • go over
  • hook up
  • look at
  • plug in
  • rely on
  • show off
  • take after
  • take away
  • take in


  • influence
  • make advances in
  • make improvements to
  • make the world of difference
  • overcome difficulties
  • remarkable achievement
  • seek ways to improve
  • transform
  • turning point
  • considerable change
  • dramatic change
  • far-reaching change
  • refreshing change
  • subtle change
  • unexpected change
  • city-dwelling
  • complex
  • doorstep
  • expand
  • go
... Continue reading "Advanced Vocabulary, Conditionals, and Modal Verbs" »

Using 'going to' in English: Formation, Negation, and Interrogation

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SUJETO + am/are/is going to + VERBO EN INFINITIVO.

I am going to eat.

You are going to eat.

He is going to eat.

To form the negation, add not after am/are/is:

SUJETO + am/are/is not going to + VERBO EN INFINITIVO

I am not going to dance tonight.

To form the interrogation, invert the order of the subject and the auxiliary verb to be:

am/are/is + SUJETO + going to + VERBO EN INFINITIVO ?

Are you going to dance tonight?

Short answers: Yes, I am. Yes, you are. Yes, he is.

No, I'm not. No, you aren't. No, she isn't.

Wh - Questions:

What are you going to do this weekend?

When is your mum going to come home this afternoon?

How long are they going to wait?

Simple past grammar

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–-Present= -present simple+adverbio de frecuencia(She often goes to work by bicycle) -will+adverbio de frecuencia(He will sometime go to the gym)

–Past= -past simple+adverbios de frecuencia(I always had milk before bed when i was young) -would(‘d)(every sumer we would go to the same hotel)(con estate verbs no se usa-solo acciones) -used to(negative didn’t use to)(I used to have piano lessons(ya no las tengo)) Would no se utiliza con stative verbs para stative verbs used to

–-Criticizing habitual actions= -situaciones habituales que nos molestan -present/past continuous+adverb(always-constantly..)(She always complaining about her job) -para enfatizar usamos will/would(she will stay up late watching tv)

Verb Tenses in English: Rules and Examples

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(PS) [SUJETO] + [VERBO] (en infinitivo sin to) A la tercera persona se le añade s. Para los verbos acabados en "-o","-sh", "-ch" , "-ss", "-x" , "-z", "-y" se añade "-es" en lugar de "-spara la 3ª persona del singular".Rutinas, Situaciones permanentes, Leyes naturales o físicas

(PC) [SUJETO]+ am/are/is (verbo to be) + [ VERBO CON -ING Se sustituye la "-e"final por "-ing"] Acciones que se están haciendo en el mismo momento que se habla situaciones cíclicas en un periodo de tiempo definido

(PAC)El pasado continuose utiliza para acciones que ocurrieron en un momento específico en el pasado, verbo auxiliar “to be” y el gerundio (infinitivo + “-ing”)was talking

(PAS)pasado simple para acciones completas en el pasado, usamos el... Continue reading "Verb Tenses in English: Rules and Examples" »

Money Idioms, Phrasal Verbs, and Financial Vocabulary

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Money Idioms

  • made a fortune
  • tighten your belt
  • hard up
  • cost an arm and a leg
  • break the bank
  • make a killing
  • money to burn
  • bread and butter
  • pour money down the drain
  • bring home the bacon
  • live from hand to mouth
  • from rags to riches
  • keep the wolf from the door

Phrasal Verbs

  • pay off
  • rip off
  • run up
  • pay back
  • splash out
  • put aside
  • put down


  • get it
  • get around to
  • get into
  • get out of
  • get something out of
  • get over
  • get past
  • get back to (someone)
  • get together
  • get acquainted with
  • get to the point
  • get ready
  • get away (with)


  • asteroid
  • orbit
  • comet
  • planets
  • constellation
  • rings
  • crater
  • solar system
  • eclipse
  • star
  • galaxy
  • sun
  • meteor
  • meteorite
  • Milky Way
  • moon
  • telescope
  • astronaut
  • spacecraft
  • rocket
  • space probe
  • lunar module
  • UFO


  • 0 conditional: siempre sucede 'pres.s+pres.s'
  • 1 conditional: posible situación en el futuro
... Continue reading "Money Idioms, Phrasal Verbs, and Financial Vocabulary" »

What is the time of the pet

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-the last time that+subject+v-3+was+time expresion+ago.   Subject+negative have+v-3+for/since+duracion/fecha.

-subject+last+v-3-time expression+ago.   Subject+negative have+v-3+for/since+duracion/fecha. 

-it´s been+period of time+since+subject+last+v-3.   The last time that+subject+v-3+was+time expresion+ago.   Subject+negative have+v-3+for/since+duracion/fecha. 

-that was the firs time that+subject+v-3.   Subject+negative had+v-3+before

-durative expresion+subject+v-3.   Subject+v-3++while+was/were+v-ing

-subject+v-3+time reference. Subject+v-3+time reference.   By the time+subject+v-3+subject+had+v-3.   Before+subject+v-3+subject+had+v-3.   After+subject+had+v-3+subject+v-3

Spanish Verbs and Prepositions: Common Pairings and Meanings

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Common Spanish Verb and Preposition Pairings

acercarse a - to approach

arrepentirse de - to regret

atreverse a - to dare

convertirse en - to become

darse cuenta de - to realize

enterarse de - to find out about

fijarse en - to take notice of

morirse de - to die of

olvidarse de - to forget

preocuparse por - to worry

quejarse de - to complain

sorprenderse de - to be surprised about

Additional Meanings of 'para' and 'por'

para - destination, deadline/future time, goal, purpose, recipient, comparison with others, employment.

por - motion/general location, duration, reason/motive, object of search, means by which, exchange/substitution, measure

The Catcher in the Rye: Study Guide Questions and Answers

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Study Guide Questions

1. What is the name of the novel we have been studying in class?

The name of the novel we are studying is The Catcher in the Rye

2. Where does D.B live?


3. What is D.B's job?

D.B's job is a screenwriter in Hollywood

4. What is Pencey Prep?

Pencey Prep is a boarding school where Holden was; there were stupid phony people

5. What does Holden think about D.B's job?

Holden thinks that D.B's job is a prostitute because he sells his scripts

6. Why was all the fencing team upset?

They were upset because Holden left the equipment in the subway

7. Who is Old Spencer?

Old Spencer was Holden's teacher

8. Why did Old Spencer want to see Holden before Christmas break?

He wanted to say goodbye

9. Why wasn't Holden going back to school in January?... Continue reading "The Catcher in the Rye: Study Guide Questions and Answers" »

The modern subject is the subject of the sciences.

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It dawned on me: I realized

I’ve lost count of: I can’t remember       Innovation: new idea    Incubation: development

Hunch: an idea based on feelings     Adjacent: next to    Without exception: In every case

In solitude: alone

I can’t come up with        I haven’t the faintest idea

I’m drawing a blank          It’s dawning on me

It occurs to me that          I’m coming to the realization that

I’m stuck for ideas             It strikes me that

Much to dismay of: causing quite a lot of upset for     Chuck: throw     Congregate: gather together

Become: self-perpetuating: makes itself worse     Stay put: remain in one

Got to the bottom of       Overcome obstacles

Solve the dilemma       ... Continue reading "The modern subject is the subject of the sciences." »

Conectores en inglés para añadir, ordenar, dar ejemplos, causa y efecto, comparar, contraponer, contrastar y dar énfasis

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Conectores para añadir:

  • and
  • also
  • as well as
  • moreover
  • too
  • furthermore
  • additionally

Conectores para ordenar:

  • first, second, third...
  • finally
  • next
  • then
  • subsequently

Conectores para dar ejemplos:

  • for example
  • such as
  • for instance
  • illustrated by

Conectores de causa y efecto:

  • because
  • so
  • therefore
  • consequently

Conectores para comparar:

  • similarly
  • likewise
  • as with
  • like
  • equally
  • in the same way

Conectores para contraponer:

  • but
  • however
  • although
  • unless
  • except
  • apart from

Conectores para contrastar:

  • whereas
  • instead of
  • alternatively
  • on the other hand

Conectores para dar énfasis:

  • above all
  • in particular
  • especially
  • significantly
  • indeed
  • notably