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Essential Spanish Connecting Words and Phrases

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About to (+ verb)

A punto de (+ a verb)

According to (PREP)

Según lo que dice (referencing a source)

Actually (S)

Realmente, de hecho, por cierto

After all (BOTH)

Al fin y al cabo - (like “the bottom line”)

All in all (S)

En resumen / tomando todo en cuenta

All over (PREP)

Por todo (mundo, país), en todo

On the Contrary (S)

Todo lo contrario

Although (S)


Anyway (S)

En todo caso, de todas maneras, de todas formas


Como, mientras, Dado que

As far as (S)

Hasta lo que ---- this expression is essentially just used with AS FAR AS I KNOW and AS FAR AS I’M CONCERNED

As for (PREP)

Referente a, en relación a, con respecto a

As a matter of fact (S)

De hecho, en realidad

As to (PREP)

Referente a, respecto a

As well (AT THE END)

También (use only at the end

... Continue reading "Essential Spanish Connecting Words and Phrases" »

Advanced Vocabulary, Conditionals, and Modal Verbs

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  • adopt an approach to
  • analyse
  • conduct
  • demonstrate the possibility that
  • field of study
  • major breakthrough
  • observe
  • procedure
  • process data
  • provide evidence
  • test a theory
  • variety of sources
  • guinea pig
  • light years ahead
  • quantum leap
  • rocket science
  • side effects
  • trial and error
  • come about
  • come to light
  • discomfort
  • distinguish
  • make out
  • mutation
  • personal hygiene
  • pick up
  • treatment
  • widespread
  • bring up
  • go over
  • hook up
  • look at
  • plug in
  • rely on
  • show off
  • take after
  • take away
  • take in


  • influence
  • make advances in
  • make improvements to
  • make the world of difference
  • overcome difficulties
  • remarkable achievement
  • seek ways to improve
  • transform
  • turning point
  • considerable change
  • dramatic change
  • far-reaching change
  • refreshing change
  • subtle change
  • unexpected change
  • city-dwelling
  • complex
  • doorstep
  • expand
  • go
... Continue reading "Advanced Vocabulary, Conditionals, and Modal Verbs" »

Using 'going to' in English: Formation, Negation, and Interrogation

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SUJETO + am/are/is going to + VERBO EN INFINITIVO.

I am going to eat.

You are going to eat.

He is going to eat.

To form the negation, add not after am/are/is:

SUJETO + am/are/is not going to + VERBO EN INFINITIVO

I am not going to dance tonight.

To form the interrogation, invert the order of the subject and the auxiliary verb to be:

am/are/is + SUJETO + going to + VERBO EN INFINITIVO ?

Are you going to dance tonight?

Short answers: Yes, I am. Yes, you are. Yes, he is.

No, I'm not. No, you aren't. No, she isn't.

Wh - Questions:

What are you going to do this weekend?

When is your mum going to come home this afternoon?

How long are they going to wait?

Family Structures and Vocabulary

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  • The Extended Family: This family is composed of parents, aunts, uncles, grandparents, and other family members who live in the same household.
  • The Stepfamily: In this type of family, also known as a blended family, the children are not biologically related to one of the parents. The parents have a new partner or spouse due to divorce or death.
  • The Single-Parent Family: Also known as a lone-parent family, it is made up of one parent who is raising one or more children by him or herself.
  • The Childless Family: This family includes a husband and wife but doesn't include children.
  • The Nuclear Family: This is the traditional type of family, which consists of two parents and an only child or siblings. The parents are usually
... Continue reading "Family Structures and Vocabulary" »

A Deep Dive into the Talmud Yerushalmi: History, Structure, and Linguistic Features

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A Deep Dive into the Talmud Yerushalmi

History and Compilation

When was the Talmud Yerushalmi compiled?

According to the Rambam, it was compiled 300 years after the destruction of the Second Temple.

Does the Ravad agree with the Rambam's timeline?

No, the Ravad's calculation is that it was compiled 200 years after the destruction.

Who was Rabbi Yochanan, and how is he referred to in the Yerushalmi?

Rabbi Yochanan, also known as Bar Nafcha (son of the blacksmith) or Ben Hanefach in the Yerushalmi, was a key figure in its redaction. He was the brother-in-law of Reish Lakish.

Who else did Rabbi Yochanan learn from?

He studied under Rabbi Hoshea, Rabbi Abba, Rabbi Yannai, and Rabbi Chanina in Caesarea.

What does it mean that Rabbi Yochanan"compose" the Yerushalmi

... Continue reading "A Deep Dive into the Talmud Yerushalmi: History, Structure, and Linguistic Features" »

Simple past grammar

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–-Present= -present simple+adverbio de frecuencia(She often goes to work by bicycle) -will+adverbio de frecuencia(He will sometime go to the gym)

–Past= -past simple+adverbios de frecuencia(I always had milk before bed when i was young) -would(‘d)(every sumer we would go to the same hotel)(con estate verbs no se usa-solo acciones) -used to(negative didn’t use to)(I used to have piano lessons(ya no las tengo)) Would no se utiliza con stative verbs para stative verbs used to

–-Criticizing habitual actions= -situaciones habituales que nos molestan -present/past continuous+adverb(always-constantly..)(She always complaining about her job) -para enfatizar usamos will/would(she will stay up late watching tv)

Financial Analysis and Valuation

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Part 1: Financial Ratios and Metrics

Working Capital

Working Capital = Accounts Receivable + Stock - Accounts Payable

Net Short-Term Debt

Net Short-Term Debt = Short-Term Debt - Cash

Net Total Debt

Net Total Debt = Net Short-Term Debt + Long-Term Debt

Net Total Investment

Net Total Investment = Working Capital + Net Fixed Assets

Security Stock

Security Stock = Working Capital - Net Short-Term Debt

Average Collection Period (ACP)

ACP = [(Average Accounts Receivable) / (Revenues)] * 365

Average Sales Period (ASP)

ASP = [(Average Stock) / (Cost of Sales)] * 365


Purchases = Cost of Sales + Stock2 - Stock1

Average Payment Period (APP)

APP = [(Average Accounts Payable) / (Purchases)] * 365

Financial Average Maturity

Financial Average Maturity = Sum of Averages


... Continue reading "Financial Analysis and Valuation" »

Verb Tenses in English: Rules and Examples

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(PS) [SUJETO] + [VERBO] (en infinitivo sin to) A la tercera persona se le añade s. Para los verbos acabados en "-o","-sh", "-ch" , "-ss", "-x" , "-z", "-y" se añade "-es" en lugar de "-spara la 3ª persona del singular".Rutinas, Situaciones permanentes, Leyes naturales o físicas

(PC) [SUJETO]+ am/are/is (verbo to be) + [ VERBO CON -ING Se sustituye la "-e"final por "-ing"] Acciones que se están haciendo en el mismo momento que se habla situaciones cíclicas en un periodo de tiempo definido

(PAC)El pasado continuose utiliza para acciones que ocurrieron en un momento específico en el pasado, verbo auxiliar “to be” y el gerundio (infinitivo + “-ing”)was talking

(PAS)pasado simple para acciones completas en el pasado, usamos el... Continue reading "Verb Tenses in English: Rules and Examples" »

Money Idioms, Phrasal Verbs, and Financial Vocabulary

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Money Idioms

  • made a fortune
  • tighten your belt
  • hard up
  • cost an arm and a leg
  • break the bank
  • make a killing
  • money to burn
  • bread and butter
  • pour money down the drain
  • bring home the bacon
  • live from hand to mouth
  • from rags to riches
  • keep the wolf from the door

Phrasal Verbs

  • pay off
  • rip off
  • run up
  • pay back
  • splash out
  • put aside
  • put down


  • get it
  • get around to
  • get into
  • get out of
  • get something out of
  • get over
  • get past
  • get back to (someone)
  • get together
  • get acquainted with
  • get to the point
  • get ready
  • get away (with)


  • asteroid
  • orbit
  • comet
  • planets
  • constellation
  • rings
  • crater
  • solar system
  • eclipse
  • star
  • galaxy
  • sun
  • meteor
  • meteorite
  • Milky Way
  • moon
  • telescope
  • astronaut
  • spacecraft
  • rocket
  • space probe
  • lunar module
  • UFO


  • 0 conditional: siempre sucede 'pres.s+pres.s'
  • 1 conditional: posible situación en el futuro
... Continue reading "Money Idioms, Phrasal Verbs, and Financial Vocabulary" »

What is the time of the pet

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-the last time that+subject+v-3+was+time expresion+ago.   Subject+negative have+v-3+for/since+duracion/fecha.

-subject+last+v-3-time expression+ago.   Subject+negative have+v-3+for/since+duracion/fecha. 

-it´s been+period of time+since+subject+last+v-3.   The last time that+subject+v-3+was+time expresion+ago.   Subject+negative have+v-3+for/since+duracion/fecha. 

-that was the firs time that+subject+v-3.   Subject+negative had+v-3+before

-durative expresion+subject+v-3.   Subject+v-3++while+was/were+v-ing

-subject+v-3+time reference. Subject+v-3+time reference.   By the time+subject+v-3+subject+had+v-3.   Before+subject+v-3+subject+had+v-3.   After+subject+had+v-3+subject+v-3