Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Music

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Differentiate of Gregorian chants from troubadour music

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MIDDLE AGES. (5-14 c.) main purpose of religious music was to teach people the ideas of Christianity. Gregorian chants: singing of the christian church. Primitive polyphony (organum), ars antiqua & ars nova. Profane music: minstrels(travelling musicians) & troubadours. Instruments: flutes, lute, small percussion instr. Compo- Leonin & Perotin, polyphony. Alfonso x the wise: cantigas de santa maria.   RENAISSANCE. (15-16 c.) christian church divided into: catholic church (pope in rome) and protestant church (luther). Patrons of the art appear. Music becomes more human. Vocal music- protestant reformation: chorale (homophony and German). Catholic counter-reformation: motet & mass (counterpoint & latin). Profane music: madrigal-
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for taking out stitches? Suture scissors are used for
for giving injections?
Syringe and needle are used for
for exploring a wound?
a wound probe and sinus forceps
for handling sterile dressings?
dissecting/ dressing forceps
for cutting bandages? (Lister’s) bandage scissors
for removing clips? clip removing fórceps
for handling sterile instruments?
Cheatle’s forceps/ instrument handling forceps
A wound probe and sinus forceps are used for exploring a wound
Cheatle's forceps are used for
handling sterile instruments.
A syringe and needle are used for
giving injections.
Bandage scissors are used for
cutting bandages.
Dissecting forceps are used for
handling sterile dressings.
Suture scissors are used for
removing sutures.
Clip-removing forceps
... Continue reading "J" »

Tema 6 (música)

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Impressionism: Composers wanted to express their impressions of things. Music in impressionism has indefinite or fragmented melodies. Impressionist sounds are created with: Sophisticated chords; Pentatonic, ancient or tone scales; Special use of certain instruments in the orchestra. Claude Debussy (La mer, Nuages and Prélude à l´après-midi d´un faune). Expressionism: Rejects everything that had been considered beautiful before. This music has no tonality and a lot of dissonance. The melodies jump up or down in big intervals, there isn´t much repetition and composers use sprechgesang (it´s an expressionist vocal technique between singing and speaking). Arnold Schöenberg (Pierrot Lunaire), Alban Berg (Wozzeck). Nationalism: Zoltán
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the music Frace

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The music of France is famous in the world for the variety of styles, and it should be noted that some of its rhythms are from Latin America, Africa and Asia that through immigration and colonies were influencing the French rhythms and notes but that over time they are recognized as their own and typical of France.Although continental France has been influenced by the rhythms brought of world fashions
In continental France, the use of bagpipes stands out, which, despite not being a native instrument, was adopted since the 17th century and has since been part of each of the streets of this wonderful oaís.

The music of France is one of the best preserved,
. Currently, the Chanson française, traditional style of country music is still very popular.
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The main stages of cold war.

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  1. What time period (dates) did the Renaissance occur? 1350-1600 What does the term Renaissance mean? rebirth Where did the Renaissance begin? City-states of Italy What city-state was the birthplace of the Renaissance? Florence What was the main business of the Medici family? banking What did Humanism focus on? secular, or worldly themes What did it also stress? individualism and independent thinking, dignity and worthName 3 ways Renaissance ideas spread. 

War, Trade, Printing Who was Johannes Gutenberg? What did his invention do? Developed the printing press; books were created faster and were less expensive; things were easier to copy & print What was a certificate of indulgence?

Pardons for sins. What did Martin Luther criticize the sale... Continue reading "The main stages of cold war." »


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Aimée Ann Duffy was born in 1984 in Wales.

She's usually known by her artistic name, “Duffy”. She's a Welsh singer-songwriter.

Duffy became famous at the age of 24 whenwhen her first album, Rockferry, went to number one in the UK Album Chart. It was the best-selling UK album in 2008 and 1.68 millions copies were sold. Mercy, the first single from the album, was number for five weeks. Last year, Duffy won the Grammy award for Best Pop Vocal Album and she was nominated for two other awards. Since then, she has performed live at concerts and festivals all cover the world. She has just released her second album. She is plannin a tour now.

Duffy is also involved in charity work. Recently, she recorded a song for the War Child Heroes charity album.

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The Entertainment of Music Concerts: A Personal Opinion

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Music Concerts

Yes, I usually go to large concerts but it depends on the concert and if I like the music or not.

For example, in my opinion, large classical music concerts are a bit boring, since it isn't my musical taste. But the concerts of rap, pop, etc., are more entertaining because I like that music.

In conclusion, going to a large concert depends on the tastes of each person, as they may be boring or not.

  1. No, he doesn't, because according to the text writer, the performance may be a single musician.
  2. Yes, I can, because concerts are held in a wide variety of settings

FAmily matters

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Every director has their own style. Some of them can be what audience is Expecting but others impress with their talent they get to have. Tim burton, Has always been recognized of his uniqueness of his many films. But what Exactly makes Tim Burton a unique director? Above all, it’s the clear vision that Comes from creativity and the way of approaching every story in a personal way And applying a talent for original style. Burton’s has a variety stylistic Techniques; his magnificent style is what brings to life the magic of the world And his characters and how is mix with the real world.

Burton’s style is very extravagant which connects with millions and his Films have universal appeal, his stories are often focused on freaks and Loners.... Continue reading "FAmily matters" »

Purpose and content of

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1.What is a ballad?

A song- poem Which reveals a historic event or person, or notable

common place occurrence. A ballad usually narrates a story.

2.Types of ballads

Oral (informal/ traditional)

Written (formal)

3.What happens when a ballad travel?

Changes language

Changes pronunciation


Historic events

Historic people

Typical war/battle won or lost

State expansion experiences

Love incident, usually tragic


5.Typical format

Usually are quatrains (4 lines)

Syllabic count: 8, 6, 8, 6

Rhyme scheme: abcb or abab

6.Purpose of a ballad

Desire to record or to remember a story

To spread the story

Want a media that travels

7.Why were ballads orally transmitted?

People didn’t know how to write properly

Low or no literature

Low or no access to paper and pencil

Low... Continue reading "Purpose and content of" »

The Renaissance: Art, Architecture, and Humanism

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The Humanist spirit created a new artistic style, the Renaissance. This style originated in the small Italian states.

Artists could dedicate themselves to creation because they were maintained by patrons, who paid them for the work. Patrons included the Medici, Sforza, and Popes.

This artistic style was called Renaissance because there was a revival of Classical Greek and Roman culture. Two reasons:

  • The arrival in Italy of Greek scholars, who had left Constantinople.
  • The abundance of Roman remains on the Italian Peninsula and the discovery of new archaeological remains.

Phases of the Renaissance:

Trecento (14th century): The early features of the Renaissance appear. The first artist was Giotto.

Quattrocento (15th century): New Renaissance innovations

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