Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Religion

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Three Christian kingdoms at the beginning of the Middle Ages

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Popular religiosity in the Middle Ages was inspired by ancient Pagan customs that the Church had christianised, such as funeral rites and festivities related to the seasons. Christianity launched eight Crusades between 1095 and 1270: military expeditions to retake the Holy Land. This is the land where Jesus Christ preached and diedIn the 12th and 13th centuries, the crusaders formed several kingdoms, of which the most important was Jerusalem.Until the 12th century, culture was shut away in monasteries. Monks were virtually the only people who could read and write. Much of their work took place at the desks in the monastery library, where they made copies of works of the early Christian thinkersWith the urban growth of the High
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The Dignity of the Human Person and the Concept of Freedom in the Church

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First, the definition of a human person as the Church sees it is that they see men and women as the living image of God Himself, the image of His plan. They have received a part of God's dignity. The Church invites all people to recognize in everyone a brother or sister "for whom Christ died". A human individual possesses the dignity of a person, who is not just something but someone. He is capable of self-knowledge, self-possession, and of freely communicating with other persons. He is called by grace to offer his Creator a response of faith and love.

Human faculties: The Catholic social doctrine of the Church is based on the concept of society, which has been created according to a specific cultural model.

Man is a rational being, and this

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Feudal Society: Three Estates and Pyramid Structure

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The Catholic Church soon realized that it needed to occupy a significant role in the feudal world.
Thus, clergymen came up with the Theory of the Three Estates (or the Three Orders), which divided the feudal society into:

  • Bellatores (warriors): privileged noblemen and knights who defended the society by means of war.
  • Oratores (prayers): privileged churchmen and churchwomen who prayed for the spiritual salvation of the world. They were the Pope, his bishops and millions of priests, monks and nuns.
  • Laboratores (labouring people): non-privileged peasants who provided material sustenance to all three groups.


  • King: top nobleman.
  • High Nobility: dukes, marquises, counts.
  • High Clergy: the Pope, his cardinals and bishops.
  • Low Nobility: barons,
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ABCDE religious

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Catholics                                                                                 Lutherans and Calvinists 

Doc: Salvation is achieved throgh                                           Doc: Salvation is achieved througn faith

faith and good deeds.                                                      (Lutherans) and predestiation (Calvinists)

Doc: Seven sacraments: baptism, confirmation,              Doc:Tow scaraments: baptism and communion

communion, penance, anointing of the                          Doc:No worsship of de Virgin Mary or de saints

sick, matrimony and holy orders.

Doc: Worhip of de Virgin Mary and the saints.

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Uruguay's Cultural Approach to Death: Funerary Rituals and Religious Influence

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Hello class, my name is Felix, and today I'm presenting: Uruguay's vision of death.

Death is a topic of immense concern for humankind because it will sooner or later affect everyone. Often it comes very suddenly and unexpectedly and can therefore be very tragic; in other cases, it may simply be a relief. Every culture has a different way to approach and deal with death. What are the different funerary rituals, burial practices, and strategies for body disposal? Do all people belonging to a certain culture deal the same way with death and the funeral? How does religion influence a culture with death? These are questions that pique my interest, and for this investigation, I will mainly concentrate on the Uruguayan culture's view of death.

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Traditions and Special Days in Spain

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Hi Alex,

Thanks for your letter, it was great to hear from you. I'm sorry I haven't written for ages, but I've been really busy preparing for my exams.

If I were you, I would visit Spain because we have good traditions and special days in my country. One special day is the Day of the Resurrection of Christ. On that day, Jesus rose from the dead, and we celebrate this religious event. We also have another day where we eat special food, but for us, it is a common day and we eat any type of food.

Here in Spain, we eat potato omelette with onion, which consists of eggs, oil, garlic cloves, and potatoes.

See you soon,


Counter Reformation: The Catholic Church's Response to Lutheranism

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counter reformation:

 to stop the spread of lutheranism , the catholic church began its own reform 

The pope Paul III called THE COUNCIL OF FRENT  to correct the mistakes of catholics 

-prohibition of the sale of indulgences

- creation of seminaries to improve the eduation of the clergy

- obligation of the clergy to lead an exemplary life

- creation of the cathetism(basic teachings)

the pope created the INQUISITION  in1542 , a tribunae that persecured and punished those who did not follow the catholic doctrine . And THE INDEX PROHIBITORUM was written, with the list of forbidden books. For example "95 theses"

the society of Jesus (jesusitas) spread the ideas of the counter reformation

Religious Conflicts: Reformation and Counter-Reformation

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Change and religious conflicts. Reformation and Counter-Reformation

The causes of the Reformation

  • Disdain for the papacy and clergy: People believed that popes were concerned with their own interests; bishops lived a life of luxury and didn't reside in their dioceses; lower-ranking clergy lacked education, didn't preach and failed to set a moral example; and religious orders didn't adhere to the established rules.
  • The abuses of the Church: Nepotism, favouritism by the high-ranking clergy towards members of their own family when allocating ecclesiastic positions; nicolaism, marriage practiced by priests; simony, the sale of ecclesiastic posts. Pope, bishops and cardinals sold forgiveness for sins to whoever bought a document of indulgences.


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The Transmission and Ritual Views of Communication

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The transmission view of communication

The transmission view of communication is the commonest in our culture--perhaps in all industrial cultures--and dominates contemporary dictionary entries under the term. It is defined by terms such as "imparting," "sending," "transmitting," or "giving information to others." It is formed from a metaphor of geography or transportation. In the nineteenth century but to a lesser extent today, the movement of goods or people and the movement of information were seen as essentially identical processes and both were described by the common noun "communication." The center of this idea of communication is the transmission of signals or messages over distance for the purpose of control. It is a view of communication

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The modern subject is the subject of the sciences.

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CA6 - Essays

Artwork should always be kept in its country of origin:

It has always been debated and disputed on this subject. There are people in favor of leaving artwork in their countries of origin and others who were against.

I want to give my opinion about it. All artwork have a place of origin and many works are not found in the countries where they were created because throughout history there have been many expoiles produced by wars among other causes. I think that the artwork of a given time and place are important to know the origin, culture and idiosyncrasy of a specific town in a given time.
They are works that can characterize the spirit and raison d'être of a people in a certain time. That essence should not be lost, and I agree,
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