Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Philosophy and ethics

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Marx and Nietzsche Comparison

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Comparison: Both authors are considered as the philosophers of suspicion. Despite the great differences between them, the philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche show the shortcomings of the founding notion of subject, which had been the starting point on which modern philosophy had developed. Both have noted how the basis of the notion of conscience is hidden: key social, economic and ideological (Marx), a morality received and spawned from a grudge against life (Nietzsche). The notion loses its regulator. Marx is a materialist view, influenced by Hegel's dialectic: everything is matter. Its design is "historical materialism": the political and social changes occur from changes occurring in the material basis of society, modes of production. For

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Theory of Knowledge of Thomas Aquinas

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-Saint Thomas Aquinas, "Theory of Knowledge:
Nature is made up of substances composed of matter and form. The subject is the element that identifies and form is the principle of universality. To know is to grasp the ways, as Aristotle correctly said, all knowledge begins with the senses. The process of knowledge is as follows:
a) The senses grasp particular objects, which are recorded in the imagination or fantasy, giving rise to images or print sensitive species. " These images are still signs or characteristics of the objects that come. The images are universal and form is only found in power.
b) Through a process of abstraction, the agent intellect robs those images containing the specific and removes the "forms." Rise of the "intelligible... Continue reading "Theory of Knowledge of Thomas Aquinas" »

Marx and kant comparison

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common ideas:

For both the story has a dialectical structure. Kant fails to formulate the terms of thesis, antithesis and synthesis (which do appear in Hegel and Marx later), but he defends, like Marx, that history suffers apparent setbacks can have a sense from this not easy to determine. The story, as Kant conceives it, is also dynamic and historical movements could be explained dialectically.

For both authors, there is also a positive assessment of the conflict. This has been sufficiently clear in our discussion of Marx, and also appears in Idea of a universal history with cosmopolitan purpose, where Marx says that the antagonism already present in human nature itself ( it is unsocial sociability) is the mechanism that nature uses for the... Continue reading "Marx and kant comparison" »

Nietzsche Comparison

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Comparing Nietzsche and Plato. Nietzsche's thought it is interesting to compare it to a thinker who represents an entirely different way of viewing reality, as is the case of rational idealism of Plato. Nietzsche is a connoisseur of Greek thought, which will become a great critic, considering the origin and foundation of the great evils that have afflicted Western civilization.
There are common features in the literary style of both authors, whose works are myths and metaphors as teaching resources, sometimes even poetic style. Also common to both authors defending the aristocratic sense of existence, although from very different perspectives. In the case of Plato is an aristocracy of knowledge (the most wise and generous are the ones who
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Chapter 1

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Lord Arthur Savile Crime Chapter 1 was Lady Windermere's last reception, everyone was there. All the beautiful pepole were there. Lady Windermere asked her palm reader to read a few hands. When he read Lord Arthur's hand Savile, he turned pale and wet hands. He said Mr lose a distant relative. He said Lord Arthur was a lovely man. It was not the whole truth. Later, Lord Arthur asked Mr. Podgers to be told the whole truth , all the horrible truth. Mr. Podgers accepted for a bit of money. Chapter 2 Lord Arthur was told that a murder was going to Committee. was horrified and went all night without knowing what to do, he heard blows and curses. The went home in the morning. Chapter 3 The next day, Lord Arthur had a different view of what happened.
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Change and permanence

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Change and permanence: The first problem is metaphysical is considered one of the first to be asked in the history of philosophy, the problem of permanence and Change. Greek thinkers were impressed by two basic characteristics of the world: the fact that naturals so changes and the continuity of certain permanent conditions .- The solution aparentementes Aristotelian Aristotle is the most important metaphysical theory that brings the ancient Greek to solve the problem of change and permanencia.Segun Aristotle, two aspects should be identified any natural event -> forma.La subject matter and is something that remains is subject variaciones.La support or form is what is gained or lost in cambio.Todos processes and each of the objects in the

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Humanization and hominization

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· Fundamental change for the start of the process of humanization was bidepismo, q and thereby shift brought about important anatomical adaptations.
· This led to a change in the structure of the foot: the big toe became not opposable, allowing support of the entire plant, q normally allowed to go and stay on two feet.
· Upright posture his center of gravity in the pelvis, is estrexa q, q it requires the modification of the vertebral column q can maintain balance and hold your head up.
· When standing erect position was another major change occurred: the liberation of the hands assumed technical roles: to manufacture and operate and tools.
· In vertical position, the hominid no longer needs to defend or attack with
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Understanding Ethics: Values, Principles, and Virtues

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How Ethics are Defined

Ethics are a branch of philosophy that reflects on what is right and wrong.

Ethics vs. Morality

Ethics involve analysis, while morality is putting ethical ideas into practice.

Ethical Values

Guiding ideals like justice, freedom, honesty, love, and respect.

Ethical Principles

General rules guiding proper behavior.

Two Ethical Principles

Confucius: 'Don't do to others what you don't like done to you.' Christian: 'Love others as yourself.'

Ethical Virtues

Habits aiding correct behavior and moral actions.

Ethical Vices

Bad habits leading to harmful actions.

Ethical Codes

Set of values, principles, rules, duties, and responsibilities guiding behavior.

Requirements for Ethical Reflection

  • Reason
  • Freedom
  • Knowledge
  • Responsibility
  • Universality
  • Education


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Kerlinger Chapter 1: science and scientific methodology.

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Scientific knowledge (Overview and Basic Concepts)

Common sense knowledge is important, is generalized. Scientific knowledge has many steps that must be applied to determine if the hypothesis is true or situción. Do not generalize from one case.

Knowing is an intellectual process by which a relationship between the knower (actor) and the known object (reality).

There are glances of psychology:

1) Positivists: You must show, watch for it to be valid, measure, quantify, and so on. (It is science based on evidence).

a) Post-positivist Probalan is added, it may be or not. Deductive (general to particular).

2) Phenomenology: Is the experience, emotions, phenomena. Study what is not necessarily observable. Inductive method (particular to general)

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Definition and Synonymic Meanings of Philosophy

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a) Nominal:

  • Etymological: "philosophy" "love of wisdom".
  • Homer (Sophia): ability, skill or technique
  • Herodotus (Sophos): anyone who outstands because of the perfection and quality of his works
  • Heraclitus (Philosophus): a philosopher is a good researcher of many things
  • Pythagoras: disinterested effort that leads to the quest for knowledge
  • Plato: Philosophy is a participation of Wisdom. It's a tendency.


  • Stoicism: philosopher is the calm, patient person, who never loses control
  • Scholasticism: philosophy is the supreme human natural science
  • Positivism: philosophy is reflection with no foundations

b) Real:

"Science of all things through ultimate causes, attained by the light of natural reason alone".

B. Formal object (point of view)

a. Infra

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