Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of French

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English Grammar Exercises: Causative Verbs and CV Structure

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1. Complete the Sentences with the Right Option (1.5 points)

  1. I'm going ……. at the new hairdresser's.
    a) to cut my hair                                            b) to get my haircut
  2. She needs to…….…
    a) have her car repairs.                                   b) have her car repaired.
  3. She is going to the shop to……………………..
    a) have developed these photos                    b) have these photos developed
  4. He ……... while he was away on holiday.
    a) had his flat burgled.                                b) burgled his flat.
  5. I ………... my phone repaired after I dropped it.
    a) had.                                                              
... Continue reading "English Grammar Exercises: Causative Verbs and CV Structure" »

Introduction to Campus Journalism in the Philippines

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ENG 103: Introduction to Campus Journalism

Lesson 1: Campus Journalism Overview


  • Written
  • Oral
  • Visual

Campus Paper:

A free school newspaper that educates students and the community.


  • Aids students, schools, and the community

Other Functions (by Harold Spears and C.H. Lawshe Jr.):

  • Information
  • Opinion
  • Education
  • Watchdog
  • Laboratory
  • Documentation
  • Entertainment
  • Developmental

Sections & Parts:

A. Front Page:
  • Local news, foreign news, dateline, weather, index
  • Nameplate: Printed name of the newspaper
  • Ears: Little boxes on either side of the nameplate
  • Banner: The principal headline (Streamer - if it runs across the page)
  • Running head: Headline made up of 2 or more lines
  • Headline: Title of any news or story
  • Deck: Subordinate headline placed below the motherline
... Continue reading "Introduction to Campus Journalism in the Philippines" »

Reported Speech and Passive Voice: Rules and Examples

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Reported Speech

1. Pre S -> Pas S 2. Pre C -> Pas C

3. Pas S -> Pas P 4. Pre P (have/has + ed/3ª) -> Pas P

5. Pas P (had been + ing) -> Pas P 6. Can -> Could

7. Will -> Would

Passive Voice

1. Pre= gives -> is given 2. Pre C= is chewing -> is being chewed

3. Pas S= gave -> was given 4. Pas C= was chewing -> was being chewed

5. Pre P= has given -> has been given 6. Pas P= had given -> had been given

7. Can/Must/Should= must give -> must be given

John da un libro a Mary -> Un libro es dado a Mary por parte de John.

Air law

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Le droit = the right/law

Le devoir = the duty
Chef de service = boss
Submerger = Overwhelm/drown
Des SMS urgents = urgent texts
Pendant = for
Prendre l'habitude de faire quelque chose = Make a habit of doing something
Ce reportage = This report
Donc = thus/therefore
Entrer en vigeur = to be enforced
Une enterprise = a company/business
De plus de 50 salaries = More than 50 employees
La loi = The law
Enquêter = Investigate
Ce cadre éteint = The manager turns off
Son ordinateur portable = His laptop
Se deconnecter = disconnect
Un grand group americain = A large American corporation
il y a huit ans = eight years ago
A été signé = Has been signed 
Envoyer = to send 
Pour vous dire qu'il m'est jamais arrivé = To tell you that it never happened to me 
En cas d'
... Continue reading "Air law" »

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives, Past Simple, Future Simple, and Present Continuous

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adj+er+than ejm: Oscar is taller than Blanca / Susana is more famous than Kia


the+adj+est ejm: Susana is the happiest / Eloddie is the most wonderful

Irregular Adjectives:

good / better than - the best; bad / worse than - the worst; far / further than - the furthest.

Past Simple:

+ed - didn't / did; Past Continuous: +was were - wasn't werent / ¿was were; ing en todos

Future Simple:

s+will+inf / s+will wont+inf / ¿will s+inf? ejm: I will go to the dentist.

Be Going To:

s+V to be+going to+inf / s+v to be+not+going to+inf / ¿v to be+s+going to+inf? ejm: I'm going to go to the dentist

Present Continuous:

s+v to be+v ing+ / s+vtobe+not+v ing / ¿v to be+s+v ing? ejm: I'm going to the dentist.

Shift of Power in the Marketplace and Quality Dimensions

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1. Which represents the shift of power in the marketplace?

From a sellers' to a customers' market

2. Which are the two dimensions of quality?

Market-perceived quality and performance quality

3. What is a term used to identify concern with the environmental consequences of marketing activities?

Green marketing

4. What are the critical issues that affect product development in relation to the control of packaging waste and consumer demand for environmentally friendly products?

The control of the packaging component of solid waste and consumer demand for environmentally friendly products

5. What is the process by which innovation spreads?


6. What is the goal of the diffusion researcher and the marketer according to Everett Rogers?

To... Continue reading "Shift of Power in the Marketplace and Quality Dimensions" »

Vocabulary for City Life and Social Interaction

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Slum (Barrio Bajo)

Urban street or district inhabited by very poor people.

Low-Income (De Bajos Ingresos)

Of or belonging to people who earn low wages.

Juvenile Delinquency (Delincuencia Juvenil)

Criminal acts or offenses by a young person.

Homeless (Sin Hogar)

Person who doesn't have a place to live and sleep.

Gangs (Pandillas)

An organized group of criminals.

Crime Rate (Tasa de Criminalidad)

Number of crimes that are committed during a period of time in a particular place.

Residential Area (Area Residencial)

Is a land used in which housing predominates, as opposed to industrial and commercial areas.

Suburbs (Afuera)

An outlying district of a city, especially a residential one.

Commute (Viajar a Diario)

Travel some distance between one'... Continue reading "Vocabulary for City Life and Social Interaction" »

Short redaction past simple past continuous and past perfect simple

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I was                         I  wasn´t
You were                 You weren´t
He was                     He wasn´t
She was                   She wasn´t
It was                       It wasn´t
We were                  We weren´t
You were                 You weren´t
They were                They weren´t 

Was I..?                      Yes, I was
Were you..?               No, you weren´t
Was he....?                 Yes, he was
Was she... ?               No, she wasn´t
Was it?                      Yes, it was
Were we..?      
... Continue reading "Short redaction past simple past continuous and past perfect simple" »

Common Spanish Vocabulary, Grammar, and Health Terms

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Bags under the eyes: OJERAS / Crows feet: Patas de gallo / Wrinkles: Arrugas / Furrowed brow: Ceño fruncido / Fine lines: primeras arrugas
Fat-fetched: inverosímil / Worldly-wise: experimentado / Genuine: auténtico / Light-hearted: alegre / Stony-faced: serio / Ill-advised: desconcertado / Deceive: engañar / Doctored: manipulado / Unwise: imprudente / Airbrushing: aerografía / Wise: sabio / Naive: ingenuo / Lively: probable / Cheerful: alegre / Take it for granted: dar por sentado / Take pride in: enorgullecerse de / Taken out of context: tomado fuera de contexto



UNLESS: I wouldn't lie to you unless it was necessary.
IMAGINE (pregunta): Imagine you were getting married... how would you feel?
Provided (condición): I'll give you
... Continue reading "Common Spanish Vocabulary, Grammar, and Health Terms" »

The Importance of PACs in Modern Politics

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Political Action Committees (PACs) have become increasingly influential in modern politics. These organizations raise and spend money to support or oppose candidates for public office. While PACs have been around for decades, their role in elections has grown significantly in recent years.

The Role of PACs in Elections

PACs play a major role in funding political campaigns. They can contribute unlimited amounts of money to candidates, and they often spend millions of dollars on advertising and other campaign activities. This money can give PACs a significant advantage in elections, especially in close races.

PACs also play a role in shaping public opinion. They can use their resources to promote their preferred candidates and policies,... Continue reading "The Importance of PACs in Modern Politics" »