Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Psychology and Sociology

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Understanding Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorders, and Schizophrenia

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Major Depressive Disorder

Absence of happiness is a more reliable symptom than increases of sadness (response to happy vs. sad faces; aleatory screening of mood during the day). Depression is more frequent in women than in men (around 2:1 ratio). Symptoms: Absence of happiness, Sadness, Helplessness, Lack of energy, Feel worthless, Sleep problems. Nongenetic Biological Influences on Depression (Dp)

  • Few cases of Dp are linked to viral infections e.g., Borna disease (farm animals)
  • Postpartum Depression: 20% of women after birth. Majority of women recover fast.
  • Hormone level changes (e.g., decrease in estrogen or progesterone) can induce depression in women with vulnerability.

Abnormalities of Hemispheric Dominance

Happy mood: increase activity in L... Continue reading "Understanding Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorders, and Schizophrenia" »

Invention by experience

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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Psychology- (Wilhelm Wundt)- Scientific study of mind and behavior. (book- Principles of Physiological Psychology)

Consciousness- a person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind.

Structuralism- the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind. 

Behavior- observable actions of a human or animal.

Philosophers- do not draw conclusions or seek truth by examining observable events (empiricism) but rather by using rationalism -- drawing conclusion by reasoning and logic.

Nativism-(Plato)- The philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or hidden.

Philosophical Empiricism-(Aristotle)- All knowledge is acquired through experience.  Mind is a blank slate.

Phrenology- (Franz Joseph Gall)- Discredited theory that specific

... Continue reading "Invention by experience" »

A laminar boundary layer is a layer

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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1. Failures are integrated and used as a revulsive → not hidden, not ignored not minimised 2. A post - error analysis is conducted to prevent them in the future → integration of errors is both intellectual and emotional 3. Mistakes are lived as a necessary step to success → guilt is discarded,  all is a part of progress 

1. Every layer of the person is integrated in one → you perceive unity, authenticity and honesty 2 Self-awareness and self-knowledge are the core → compassionate thinking and analysis of events 3. Personal commitment jar is refilled daily → Positive thinking and personal leadership rule. (negative things are the threat for us) 


Holland test: realistic, investigator, social conventional, entrepenreur, artistic

Kinesica

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Hidden curriculum dottrens

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Sociology – study of the development, structure, and Functioning of human society

Sociological imagination – insight offered by sociology

Discrimination – unjust or prejudicial treatment of Different categories of people

Stereotype – widely held but fixed oversimplified image or Idea of certain people

Sociological research – study of people using methods such As interviews, surveys, focus groups

Quantitively – measuring something based on size, not quality

Qualitative – method of gathering non numerical data

Institutional review board – administration that protects rights And welfare of human subjects

Socialization – activity of mixing socially with others

Culture – arts and other manifestations of human Intellectual achievements

Ethnocentrisms... Continue reading "Hidden curriculum dottrens" »

Human performance

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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OBJECTIVES OF ADOLESCENCE 
    To develop emotional and cognitive abilities. Young humans have access to abstract thinking and reflexive knowledge. 
    To build a personal identity, integrating and accepting their body image, have expectations and future projects. This includes accepting puberty’s physical changes, redefining familiar relationships, achieve emotional independence and a sexual identity. 
    To acquire new social abilities (relations with other classmates and adults), an autonomous moral, new interpersonal relationships (couple relationships) and exercising a studying or working role. 

PSYCHOLOGICAL CHANGES:
   It reaffirms the Ego. Individuals take conscience of themselves and acquire more emotional control. This... Continue reading "Human performance " »

Human relation theory was an improvement scientific management theory of organigation

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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Values and Modernization – Conceptual Framework Modernization theory builds on a long tradition stressing the Potential and extent of human progress. Generalized expectation that socio-economic modernization Effects value change. Enlightment: Science and reason set individuals free Marx: Technological change and capitalism makes Communism possible Smith: Technology is a source of wellbeing Postwar theorists: Some values favor economic progress While other ones not (e.G. Parsons) Nevertheless, classic modernization theory underspecifies (a) Mechanims and (b) types of values brought by modernization. Inglehart and central social theorists consider that economic Change is the main source of value change in modern societies. Values differ much... Continue reading "Human relation theory was an improvement scientific management theory of organigation" »

essay

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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FREUD

·Oral: sucking and feeding

·Anal: focus of pleasure and toilet training

·Phallic: penis is the most important body part

·Latency: sexual need is acquired

·Genital: genital attention and sexual stimulation

·Adulthood: Continuation of all stages

ERICKSON family/culture

Developmental crisis

·Trust vs. Mistrust: being help, cared

·Autonomy vs. Shame: become self sufficient

·Initiative vs. Guilt: undertake adult activities

·Industry vs. Inferiority: master new skills

·Identity vs. Role confusion: development self-sense

·Intimacy vs. Isolation: develop relationships

·Generativity vs. Stagnation: contribute to the Future generations

·Integrity vs. Despair: make sense of your life

PIAGET

·Sensorimotor: use the sense and motor skills to Understand... Continue reading "essay" »

History and Historiography

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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History is a term that relates to past events as well as the discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about these events. The term includes cosmic, geologic, and organic history, but it often generically implies human history. History can also refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyze a sequence of past events and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them.

Historiography

Historiography is the writing of history, especially the writing of history based on the critical examination of sources, the selection of particular details from authentic materials in those sources, and the synthesis of those details into a narrative that stands the test of critical

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The Nature and Benefits of Laughter: Insights from Brain Studies

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The Nature and Benefits of Laughter: Insights from Brain Studies

The smile is considered a soft and silent form of laughter. There are currently various interpretations about its nature. Some medical theories attribute beneficial effects on health and well-being to laughter.

Your brain may notice the difference between false laughter and spontaneous laughter.

In my laboratory, we saw the importance of laughter when studying images of our brain. We compared genuine laughter with that which is not.

Your brain automatically notices the difference, and hearing fake laughter produces more activity in an area of the prefrontal cortex.

This area is key to understanding other people's emotions.

It shows that we automatically try to understand and interpret

... Continue reading "The Nature and Benefits of Laughter: Insights from Brain Studies" »

Factors Influencing Conformity: Social Identity, Cultural Dimensions, and More

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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Discuss factors influencing conformity

Intro:

Conformity = change of behavior as a result of real or imagined group pressure or norms

  • Social identity theory
  • Cultural dimensions
  • Self-esteem
  • Unanimity
  • Group size
  • Private vs Public responses

Asch

  • Aim: To test the extent of conformity in a non-ambiguous task

  • Method:

    • 1 real subject among 7 confederates
    • They were asked which of the 3 lines on the right corresponded to the line presented on the left
    • Confederates of the study were told to give incorrect answers
    • Separate condition → participant was told to write down their answers individually
    • In another part of the experiment → subject was given a supporting confederate
  • Results:

    • 32% conformity rate
    • 74% of subjects conformed at least once
    • Supporting confederate →
... Continue reading "Factors Influencing Conformity: Social Identity, Cultural Dimensions, and More" »