Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Geology

Sort by

Global Warming: Brief Definition, Possible Solutions, Main Factors, and My Opinion

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 791 bytes.

Brief Definition

Global warming refers to the gradual increase of the earth's average surface temperature, due to excessive greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Possible Solutions

While this may seem like a small change, we can avoid the consequences by being aware of the problem generated by the gases or other chemicals that we use every day in our lives. This could reduce GHG emissions.

Main Factors

  • The build up of the gases in the atmosphere.
  • Burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil.

My Opinion

I think we need to have control of what we do or use. We must have a lot of information on the subject and contribute with our small but essential grain of sand.

Earth's Geology and Natural Phenomena

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 2.58 KB.

Volcanic Eruptions

Molten rock and gases are ejected through the Earth's crust.

Continental Drift

A slow horizontal movement of the continents.


A violent trembling of the Earth's crust which lasts a short time and varies in intensity.


Slow vertical movement of the Earth's crust.

Our atmosphere was formed about 4,000 million years ago.

The Magnetic Field

Around the Earth originates in the outer core.

Hot Rocks

Allow the installation of geothermal plants that take advantage of the heat to vaporize water and produce electricity.

Hydrothermal Phenomena

Occur when water seeps into the crust through cracks, it gets into contact with rocks at high temperatures.

The Earth's crust is a rigid and cold layer. Magma is a mixture of gases and molten... Continue reading "Earth's Geology and Natural Phenomena" »

English Phonetics: Diphthongs and Consonants

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 4.1 KB.


Described as vowel glides, since in their production the tongue begins in one place and moves to another. This movement of the tongue, however smooth, results in a change of vowel quality, which is why diphthongs are sometimes looked upon as 'combinations of 2 vowels'.

Diphthongs are usually classified according to whether they are:

  • Falling or rising
  • Wide or narrow
  • Front or back
  • Closing or centering

The diphthongs of RP are all stressed on the first element, described as falling. Those stressed on the finishing point (rising), can also be wide or narrow, according to the movement of the tongue from the first to the second target. Those in which the position of the tongue body changes quite noticeably are described as 'wide diphthongs'.... Continue reading "English Phonetics: Diphthongs and Consonants" »

Earth's Fluid Spheres: Atmosphere and Hydrosphere

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 2.23 KB.

Just 2.5% of water on Earth is fresh water. About 69% of that fresh water is frozen. This means that less than 1% of water on Earth is drinkable.

1. The Atmosphere

  1. The atmosphere

Earth's gaseous atmosphere is mostly nitrogen & oxygen. It also contains argon, carbon dioxide, ozone & water vapor.

Earth's atmosphere has an upper limit of 10,000 kilometers.

Most of the gases are found in the lowest 15 kilometers.


The gases in the atmosphere push down on Earth's surface.

The weight of all these gases is called atmospheric pressure.

We measure atmospheric pressure in standard units called pascals. 1 standard atmosphere = 101.325 pascals.

There is more pressure at lower altitudes, near Earth's surface. There is less pressure at... Continue reading "Earth's Fluid Spheres: Atmosphere and Hydrosphere" »

Climate and Factors Affecting it: Latitude, Altitude, Distance from the Sea, and Structure of the Atmosphere

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 2.19 KB.

Climate and Factors Affecting it

  1. Latitude

  • Latitude is the distance from any point on Earth to the Equator.
  • Latitude determines the level of insolation (amount of solar energy received) at any point. As we move further from the Equator, insolation is less intense.
  • Latitude determines the main climate zones:
    • Tropical zones: from the Tropic of Cancer to the Tropic of Capricorn. These zones experience high temperatures and abundant precipitation.
    • Temperate zones: Temperatures vary depending on the season, and precipitation is more abundant in areas near the sea.
    • Polar zones: Very low temperatures and low precipitation.
  1. Altitude

  • Altitude is the height of a place relative to sea level.
  • Temperature falls 0.6ºC for every 100 m of altitude.
  • Relief can also cause
... Continue reading "Climate and Factors Affecting it: Latitude, Altitude, Distance from the Sea, and Structure of the Atmosphere" »

Chemical oxygen generators are used to furnish oxygen to the

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 76.96 KB.

What is an Environmentally Sustainable Society?

One that meets the current and future basic resource needs of its people in

a just and equitable manner without compromising the ability of the future

generations to meet their basic resource needs

Environmental Scientists

John Muir (1892) - created Yosemite National Parks

Created Sierra club

Eugene and Howard (1953) - wrote the first ecology textbook

Rachel Carson (1962) - wrote Silent Spring

Effects of DDT

Lois Gibbs (1980) - formed the Citizens Clearinghouse for hazardous

 waste, petition to Jimmy Carter

The town was called Love Canal

Theodore Roosevelt (1900) - created the United States Forest Service

 for Wildlife

Established 5 national parks

Antiquities Act

James Lovelock (1960s) - created the Gaia

... Continue reading "Chemical oxygen generators are used to furnish oxygen to the" »

The Devastating Impact of Plastic Pollution: A Call to Action

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 1.4 KB.

The Devastating Impact of Plastic Pollution

Ubiquitous Waste: A Global Problem

Plastic waste has become ubiquitous, contaminating every corner of our planet, including our oceans. Its persistence and improper disposal lead to its widespread distribution, harming ecosystems and wildlife.

Biodegradable vs. Non-Biodegradable: A Misconception

While plastic may break down into smaller pieces, it does not biodegrade. These fragments can be ingested by animals, entering the food chain and causing contamination and health issues.

The Lasting Legacy of Plastic: A Threat to Humanity

Most plastics are virtually indestructible, outlasting even the harshest conditions. This poses a significant threat to our planet and future generations, as it will continue to... Continue reading "The Devastating Impact of Plastic Pollution: A Call to Action" »

Climate Change: Causes, Consequences, and Solutions

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 3.07 KB.

What is Climate Change?

Climate change refers to the long-term variations in global climate patterns. These changes can be driven by natural processes, external forces, or human activities. However, the term "global warming" specifically highlights the impact of human activities on the planet's temperature.

The Human Impact

Over the past few decades, human activities have significantly contributed to global warming. The Earth's average temperature has risen by approximately two degrees Celsius, and projections indicate continued warming unless we take action. While thousands share responsibility for this change, several key factors contribute to the problem:

  • The Greenhouse Effect: The burning of fossil fuels releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere,
... Continue reading "Climate Change: Causes, Consequences, and Solutions" »

Electric Scooter Fines in Barcelona: Regulations and Safety Guidelines

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 1.83 KB.

The Electric Scooter Accumulates 3,000 Fines in Barcelona in 2018

The City Council and the Urban Guard warn that these vehicles are not toys, so their drivers must respect the regulations.

The increase in sanctions to electric scooter drivers, about 3,000 in 2018, has led the Barcelona City Council to redouble the information about the traffic regulations of these vehicles, which has been in force since 2017, informed this Friday Ricardo Salas, mayor of the Urban Guard. Manuel Valdés, Manager of Mobility and Infrastructure of the consistory, stressed that these vehicles are not toys and emphasized that it is important to remember the regulations to all those who have thought of buying or giving them away.

Electric scooters are prohibited from

... Continue reading "Electric Scooter Fines in Barcelona: Regulations and Safety Guidelines" »

Types of Rocks, Stone, and Ceramics for Construction

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 2.21 KB.

Earth's Crust

Hard outer surface of the earth


A reddish-brown material that...


Objects with a triangular...


An additive that increases the...


Press or break into small...


An additive that reduces the melting...


Walls built from the...


Rock transformed by...


Rock formed from magma...


Producing heat

Stone Blocks

Quarrying, processing: cutting, shaping, polishing. Aggregates: cleaning, crushing, sorting. Aggregates that come from rivers are called river rock. Crushed rock has irregular edges that provide more friction. Natural stone: limestone, marble, granite, slate, tuff. Stone binders: in construction plaster lime and cement are used as binders to hold other materials together. Plaster, lime,... Continue reading "Types of Rocks, Stone, and Ceramics for Construction" »