Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Geology

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Classified in Geology

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Sandblasting is a practice for excellence in Almeria,
This technique is based on the placement on the ground of an impermeable horizon that can be cane earth thirty 
centimeters thick, over a layer ofmanure two centimeters and finally a layer of sand between ten and twenty 
One of its qualities is that it prevents the rise of the water by capillarity breaking is where the roots of the 
plants are located, allows the use of water which is a great advantage and allows saving water.
The main element of sandblasting is sand.

Earth's Fluid Spheres: Atmosphere and Hydrosphere

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Just 2.5% of water on Earth is fresh water. About 69% of that fresh water is frozen. This means that less than 1% of water on Earth is drinkable.

1. The Atmosphere

  1. The atmosphere

Earth's gaseous atmosphere is mostly nitrogen & oxygen. It also contains argon, carbon dioxide, ozone & water vapor.

Earth's atmosphere has an upper limit of 10,000 kilometers.

Most of the gases are found in the lowest 15 kilometers.


The gases in the atmosphere push down on Earth's surface.

The weight of all these gases is called atmospheric pressure.

We measure atmospheric pressure in standard units called pascals. 1 standard atmosphere = 101.325 pascals.

There is more pressure at lower altitudes, near Earth's surface. There is less pressure at... Continue reading "Earth's Fluid Spheres: Atmosphere and Hydrosphere" »

Climate and Factors Affecting it: Latitude, Altitude, Distance from the Sea, and Structure of the Atmosphere

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Climate and Factors Affecting it

  1. Latitude

  • Latitude is the distance from any point on Earth to the Equator.
  • Latitude determines the level of insolation (amount of solar energy received) at any point. As we move further from the Equator, insolation is less intense.
  • Latitude determines the main climate zones:
    • Tropical zones: from the Tropic of Cancer to the Tropic of Capricorn. These zones experience high temperatures and abundant precipitation.
    • Temperate zones: Temperatures vary depending on the season, and precipitation is more abundant in areas near the sea.
    • Polar zones: Very low temperatures and low precipitation.
  1. Altitude

  • Altitude is the height of a place relative to sea level.
  • Temperature falls 0.6ºC for every 100 m of altitude.
  • Relief can also cause
... Continue reading "Climate and Factors Affecting it: Latitude, Altitude, Distance from the Sea, and Structure of the Atmosphere" »

Human performance

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Gases(Co2 emissions)
Traffic of vehicles and also planes
Heating of buildings

Ozone hole 
Melting poles
Extinction of species
Skin cancer
Acid rain

Solar panels
Wind power

*Rubish thrown to oceans,rivers and lakes, e.G. Detergents and specially plastics which last long time tondescompose
*Accidents of cargo ships and patrollers

Contamination of drinking water and of fishthat lead to human’s contamination as well after eating them, endangered species. 

Deforestation of rainforests
Fossil fuels
Coal mines
Nuclear waste and disasters
... Continue reading "Human performance " »

Time of useful consciousness

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3.5 billion years old
 embedded in rocks in western Australia: stromatolites(fosilized bacteria)                
Prokaryotes dominated from 3.5 to 2 billion years ago.
 During this time, the first divergence occurred:Bacteria and archeae
5.  First photosynthetic organisms around 3.5 billion years but Oxygen began accumulating in the atmosphere about 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that are still present today → produced oxygen. Sequestered carbon dioxide in organic molecules.
These bacteria changed the Earths atmosphere.
6.  The oldest eukaryotic fossils are ~2 billion years old.
 Symbiotic community of prokaryotes living within larger prokaryotes.
The first eukaryotic cells-theory of endosymbiotic

... Continue reading "Time of useful consciousness" »

Granite characretistics

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Volcanic regions thought to be fed by the
mantle, yhey may be on, near to, or far from
tectonic plates. Crystal; Regular polyhedral structre, 
solid material, which components are arranged in
 a highly ordered microscopic structure.
Mineral ore. Aggregate of minerals or mineral form which a valuable consttituent can be proffited mined or extracted. Marl:Mix of calcite and clay.Dolomite: Composed of the minerals calcite and dolomite
Non clastic -Carbonate: Limestone dolomite marl. Evaporate: Salt rock gypsum. Organic: Coal Oil Natural gas
IGneous: formed from magma, a mass of molten rock which ussually contains dissolved gases and suspended solid fragments. Intrusive Granite Syenite Gabbro. Extrusive rhyolite andesite basalt.
... Continue reading "Granite characretistics" »

the hydrosphere

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1. PRECIPITATION. After cloud has formed, water returns to the Earth’s surface as either liquid rain or

solid snow and hail.
2. TRANSPIRATION. This occurs when plants lose water due to evaporation caused by heat from the
Sun. The water from this process also becomes part of the atmosphere.
3. CONDENSATION. Through this process the water vapour produced by evaporation and
transpiration rises, cools down, and then turns into clouds.
4. EVAPORATION. This process involves the Sun heating surface water: the water evaporates, turning
into water vapour, which then becomes part of the atmosphere.
5. SURFACE RUNOFF. When liquid water is on the surface of the Earth it flows across the land. This
water forms rivers that eventually return the water to the seas
... Continue reading "the hydrosphere" »

social science

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More than fifth of Earth’s freshwater reservoirs are found underground, in aquifers and groundwater galleries.

-Most groundwater comes from rain. This infiltrates into the ground until it meets impermeable rock, which stops the water from going further down.

-In dry periods the explotation of aquifers is superior to the speed at wich they fill up. Underground water reserves can run out, causing serious economic and environmental damage.

-Wells (pozos): provide access to groundwater for human use.

-Groundwater can come to the surface in the form of springs.

A body is placed in a certain airstream

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Industrial waste: -Plastics that never descompose can remain unchanged for centuries. There are floating islands of plastics materials in the oceans, solution produce biodegradable or photodegradable plastics and the best solution is to reduce consumption and recycle the material used.-Oil spills fundamentaly in the sea and on the coasts, affect flora and fauna, animals and plants die, solution improve fuel collection methods.-Accumulation of mining waste in tailing ponds that can break and release large amounts of very toxic substances, solution minimise the extraction of minerals and reusing and recycling devices.-Groundwater contamination due to the abuse of nitrogen-based fertilisers to improve agricultural production, solution improve
... Continue reading "A body is placed in a certain airstream" »

Principles of Flight

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properties of open channel

        The flow is under gravity.
q        There will be a free surface for the Flow open to  atmosphere
q         The position of the free surface can Change in space and time

•There are three General principles used in solving problems of flow in open channels:
–Continuity (conservation of mass)
•For problems Involving steady uniform flow, continuity and energy principles are sufficient

roughness depends on:
•Roughness Coefficient (n) is a function of:
–Channel material
–Surface irregularities
–Variation in shape
–Flow conditions
–Channel obstructions
–Degree of meandering