Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Geology

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Global Warming: Brief Definition, Possible Solutions, Main Factors, and My Opinion

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Brief Definition

Global warming refers to the gradual increase of the earth's average surface temperature, due to excessive greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Possible Solutions

While this may seem like a small change, we can avoid the consequences by being aware of the problem generated by the gases or other chemicals that we use every day in our lives. This could reduce GHG emissions.

Main Factors

  • The build up of the gases in the atmosphere.
  • Burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil.

My Opinion

I think we need to have control of what we do or use. We must have a lot of information on the subject and contribute with our small but essential grain of sand.

Earth's Geology and Natural Phenomena

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Volcanic Eruptions

Molten rock and gases are ejected through the Earth's crust.

Continental Drift

A slow horizontal movement of the continents.


A violent trembling of the Earth's crust which lasts a short time and varies in intensity.


Slow vertical movement of the Earth's crust.

Our atmosphere was formed about 4,000 million years ago.

The Magnetic Field

Around the Earth originates in the outer core.

Hot Rocks

Allow the installation of geothermal plants that take advantage of the heat to vaporize water and produce electricity.

Hydrothermal Phenomena

Occur when water seeps into the crust through cracks, it gets into contact with rocks at high temperatures.

The Earth's crust is a rigid and cold layer. Magma is a mixture of gases and molten... Continue reading "Earth's Geology and Natural Phenomena" »

Earth's Fluid Spheres: Atmosphere and Hydrosphere

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Just 2.5% of water on Earth is fresh water. About 69% of that fresh water is frozen. This means that less than 1% of water on Earth is drinkable.

1. The Atmosphere

  1. The atmosphere

Earth's gaseous atmosphere is mostly nitrogen & oxygen. It also contains argon, carbon dioxide, ozone & water vapor.

Earth's atmosphere has an upper limit of 10,000 kilometers.

Most of the gases are found in the lowest 15 kilometers.


The gases in the atmosphere push down on Earth's surface.

The weight of all these gases is called atmospheric pressure.

We measure atmospheric pressure in standard units called pascals. 1 standard atmosphere = 101.325 pascals.

There is more pressure at lower altitudes, near Earth's surface. There is less pressure at... Continue reading "Earth's Fluid Spheres: Atmosphere and Hydrosphere" »

Climate and Factors Affecting it: Latitude, Altitude, Distance from the Sea, and Structure of the Atmosphere

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Climate and Factors Affecting it

  1. Latitude

  • Latitude is the distance from any point on Earth to the Equator.
  • Latitude determines the level of insolation (amount of solar energy received) at any point. As we move further from the Equator, insolation is less intense.
  • Latitude determines the main climate zones:
    • Tropical zones: from the Tropic of Cancer to the Tropic of Capricorn. These zones experience high temperatures and abundant precipitation.
    • Temperate zones: Temperatures vary depending on the season, and precipitation is more abundant in areas near the sea.
    • Polar zones: Very low temperatures and low precipitation.
  1. Altitude

  • Altitude is the height of a place relative to sea level.
  • Temperature falls 0.6ºC for every 100 m of altitude.
  • Relief can also cause
... Continue reading "Climate and Factors Affecting it: Latitude, Altitude, Distance from the Sea, and Structure of the Atmosphere" »

Chemical oxygen generators are used to furnish oxygen to the

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What is an Environmentally Sustainable Society?

One that meets the current and future basic resource needs of its people in

a just and equitable manner without compromising the ability of the future

generations to meet their basic resource needs

Environmental Scientists

John Muir (1892) - created Yosemite National Parks

Created Sierra club

Eugene and Howard (1953) - wrote the first ecology textbook

Rachel Carson (1962) - wrote Silent Spring

Effects of DDT

Lois Gibbs (1980) - formed the Citizens Clearinghouse for hazardous

 waste, petition to Jimmy Carter

The town was called Love Canal

Theodore Roosevelt (1900) - created the United States Forest Service

 for Wildlife

Established 5 national parks

Antiquities Act

James Lovelock (1960s) - created the Gaia

... Continue reading "Chemical oxygen generators are used to furnish oxygen to the" »

Electric Scooter Fines in Barcelona: Regulations and Safety Guidelines

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The Electric Scooter Accumulates 3,000 Fines in Barcelona in 2018

The City Council and the Urban Guard warn that these vehicles are not toys, so their drivers must respect the regulations.

The increase in sanctions to electric scooter drivers, about 3,000 in 2018, has led the Barcelona City Council to redouble the information about the traffic regulations of these vehicles, which has been in force since 2017, informed this Friday Ricardo Salas, mayor of the Urban Guard. Manuel Valdés, Manager of Mobility and Infrastructure of the consistory, stressed that these vehicles are not toys and emphasized that it is important to remember the regulations to all those who have thought of buying or giving them away.

Electric scooters are prohibited from

... Continue reading "Electric Scooter Fines in Barcelona: Regulations and Safety Guidelines" »

Types of Rocks, Stone, and Ceramics for Construction

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Earth's Crust

Hard outer surface of the earth


A reddish-brown material that...


Objects with a triangular...


An additive that increases the...


Press or break into small...


An additive that reduces the melting...


Walls built from the...


Rock transformed by...


Rock formed from magma...


Producing heat

Stone Blocks

Quarrying, processing: cutting, shaping, polishing. Aggregates: cleaning, crushing, sorting. Aggregates that come from rivers are called river rock. Crushed rock has irregular edges that provide more friction. Natural stone: limestone, marble, granite, slate, tuff. Stone binders: in construction plaster lime and cement are used as binders to hold other materials together. Plaster, lime,... Continue reading "Types of Rocks, Stone, and Ceramics for Construction" »

Biological Reactors: Material Balances and Kinetics

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1. Fed-batch biological reactor: material balances with Monod kinetics and operating methods:

  • it maintains some operational characteristics of the batch, while ensuring constant biomass production such as a CSTR
  • Therefore, there is an inlet supply with V˙e and [substrate] Cse and negligible Cxe
  • since it is not a continuous reactor, it will never reach the steady state condition, there will always be an accumulation
  • at zero time there will be: a certain initial VR with an initial [substrate], initial [biomass] and subsequently the volume will increase over time.
  • Total biomass balance:
  • dmtot / dt = me, with me = ρe V ,e,
  • from this relationship we obtain that
    1. dVr / dt = V˙e.
  • At this point two feeding strategies can be considered,
    1. 1. one with
... Continue reading "Biological Reactors: Material Balances and Kinetics" »

Layers of the Atmosphere: Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere

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The troposphere is the layer that contains 20% of all the gases of the atmosphere. Meteorological phenomena, such as clouds and precipitation, take place in the troposphere.


The stratosphere is the layer that contains the ozone layer. This absorbs much of the Sun's radiation, so temperatures rise in the stratosphere.


The mesosphere has very low temperatures, reaching -140°C.


The thermosphere is also known as the ionosphere. Temperatures in this layer are very high.


The exosphere is the outer layer of the atmosphere. Artificial satellites orbit the Earth in the exosphere.

Time of useful consciousness

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3.5 billion years old
 embedded in rocks in western Australia: stromatolites(fosilized bacteria)                
Prokaryotes dominated from 3.5 to 2 billion years ago.
 During this time, the first divergence occurred:Bacteria and archeae
5.  First photosynthetic organisms around 3.5 billion years but Oxygen began accumulating in the atmosphere about 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that are still present today → produced oxygen. Sequestered carbon dioxide in organic molecules.
These bacteria changed the Earths atmosphere.
6.  The oldest eukaryotic fossils are ~2 billion years old.
 Symbiotic community of prokaryotes living within larger prokaryotes.
The first eukaryotic cells-theory of endosymbiotic

... Continue reading "Time of useful consciousness" »