Advanced Vocabulary, Conditionals, and Modal Verbs

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  • adopt an approach to
  • analyse
  • conduct
  • demonstrate the possibility that
  • field of study
  • major breakthrough
  • observe
  • procedure
  • process data
  • provide evidence
  • test a theory
  • variety of sources
  • guinea pig
  • light years ahead
  • quantum leap
  • rocket science
  • side effects
  • trial and error
  • come about
  • come to light
  • discomfort
  • distinguish
  • make out
  • mutation
  • personal hygiene
  • pick up
  • treatment
  • widespread
  • bring up
  • go over
  • hook up
  • look at
  • plug in
  • rely on
  • show off
  • take after
  • take away
  • take in


  • influence
  • make advances in
  • make improvements to
  • make the world of difference
  • overcome difficulties
  • remarkable achievement
  • seek ways to improve
  • transform
  • turning point
  • considerable change
  • dramatic change
  • far-reaching change
  • refreshing change
  • subtle change
  • unexpected change
  • city-dwelling
  • complex
  • doorstep
  • expand
  • go through
  • move into
  • surroundings
  • take over
  • thrive
  • turn out
  • under the radar
  • come up against
  • get on with
  • look back on
  • miss out on
  • keep up with
  • stand up for
  • breakthrough
  • changeover
  • downfall
  • drop off
  • setback
  • upbringing
  • astonishing
  • hideous
  • majestic
  • passionate
  • scorching


  • if+present simple+present simple


  • if+present simple+will or modal infinitive or imperative


  • if+ past simple+ would/could


  • if+ past perfect+ have+ past participle


  • past perfect would/n’t + infinitive
  • past simple would/n’t + have + past participle


  • I wish / If only + subject + past simple / continuous
  • I wish / If only + subject + would + infinitive without to
  • I wish / If only + subject + past perfect
  1. Everyone agreed that completing the triathlon only a year after coming out of hospital was a remarkable achievement.
  2. Getting extra help from one of the teachers after school was a turning point in my education.
  3. If you get on with your history project now, you will have more time to hang out with your friends later.
  4. As cities expand, animals’ natural habitats are cleared to make way for new housing or are taken over by agriculture to sustain cities’ inhabitants.
  5. If I were you I would stand up for my rights. It’s not fair that he has taken over the company without consulting it with you.
  6. They are making great advances in medicine. I’m sure David’s going to get better soon.
  7. Had I known it better, I would never have dropped out of school.
  8. She got through a lot in order to finish her investigation and now it has turned out to be major breakthrough in the biology field.
  9. I have had four formal girlfriends and all of them follow me on Instagram, I'm used to overcome breakups.
  10. I have to keep up with my studies if I want to work as a psychologist at the hospital. If I give the best of me studying, I may work as a psychologist at the hospital.
  11. The most important company of the city thrived for many years until it experienced an unexpected change and its drop-off in sales brought about its downfall.
  12. When Laura looked back on her childhood with her grandmother, she got emotional.
  • Modal Verbs Expressing Ability
  • Can + infinitive: It expresses ability in the present or future.
  • Could + infinitive: It expresses ability in the past.
  • Be able to: It can express ability in different tenses
  • Modal Verbs Expressing Certainty and Uncertainty
  • May and Might: To express certainty about the present and the future (might suggests a smaller possibility than may), conditional sentences.
  • Can and Could: A theoretical kind of possibility or characteristic behaviour of people/things, Factual possibility.
  • Must: for logical deductions.
  • Can’t: for negative logical deductions
  • Modal Verbs Expressing Permission
  • Asking for permission: Can I…? Could I…? May I…? Might I…? Can’t I…?/Couldn’t I?
  • Giving permission: Can. May (formal) Could/might (in reported speech
  • Refusing permission: Can’t
  • Modal Verbs Expressing Obligation
  • Strong Obligation: Must, Have to, Had to
  • Prohibition: Mustn’t
  • Absence of Obligation: Don’t have to/Needn’t
  • Mild Obligation: Ought to and should
  • Perfect Modals: Must Have, Could Have, May/Might Have, Can’t have, Should Have

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