IMPERIALISM: It was a political, social and military movement (19th-20th century). It was led by Europeans countries and later by Japan, USA and Russia. The main objective was to become a big empire so, each country needed to conquer some territories (in Africa, Canada, Australia and Asia) known as colonies.
CAUSES OF IMPERIALISM:Economic interests: Industrialized Europeans countries were in search of new markets (to sell their surplus products) and they also wanted to obtain more raw materials (cotton, iron coal…) and colonial products (sugar, chocolate, tea…) and in that colonies the labor was cheaper (workforce). Population growth: The economic changes caused a huge rise in Europeans population ( less deaths and more food). This caused overpopulation so a part of the population have to emigrate to colonies on other continents. Migration was a solution to metropole to avoid social problems like unemployment. The europeans had better living conditions than the natives in the colony. Rivalry between empires: They wanted to be big empires to have more political and economic power and influence. It caused conflicts when two differents empires wanted the same territory. The myth of master race: European or western people believed that they were the best and because of that reason they could conquest and exploited territories. How they considered themselves culturally superior they started to impart traditions, lenguage, culture, currency…
COLONIALISM: Imperialism led to colonialism. It consist in establishing different colonies ( conquered territories) in underdeveloped territories (Africa, Asia, Australia and Canada) (to do easier the conquest) to supply the metropole (European countries, USA and Japan) and exploit their resources, people…THE CONQUER OF THE WORLD (phase) 1Exploration of the territory to Know how the territory is, to know the type of people that live there and the natural resources availables to decide if they want to conquer it. 2Conquest the territory with an army and weapons.3Organised the territory to create a colony. 4Exploration the colony and civilized people → They (europeans countries) thought that were better because they had more technological advances and they didn't act like them. So they “educated and civilized” them.THE METROPOLE AND COLONY:The metropole is the country (developed countries) that have and control the colonies ( France, Great Britain, Portugal…), however, the colony is the territory conquered and exploited by the metropole (Africa, Canada, Australia, south Africa, Angola…).The metropole and colony had a unequal relationship because the metropole control the colony, which can not have industries, have to buy industrial products to its metropole and have to sell their raw materials at low price to it metropole.TYPES OF COLONYColony → It’s a territory ruled by the metropole → Egypt, India Protectorate → It’s a territory ruled or governed by indigenous government. But the metropole controls the economy. → Morocco, French protectorate, Spanish protectorate…Dominion → It’s a territory ruled by a local government composed by Europeans and their descendents. The metropole controlled the economy and foreign policy. → Australia, South Africa, Argelia, New Zealand…Concession → It’s a city or small area controlled by a metropole during a period of time. → Hong-Kong.
THE FIRST World WarIntroduction: A global war in 1914.This was a new type of war that involved many different countries and its territories or colonies. Also because colonial empires had several overseas territories (In Africa, Asia and Oceania). As well as others non- European countries like USA, Japan, Ottoman empire … took part in the conflict . Because of all that this war was a global war.Causes:The main reason was the rivalry and tension between European countries and colonial empires developed during the armed peace period established from the end of 19th to the beginning of the 20th century by Europeans powers.It leads and Arm race, in which Europeans power were spent important amount of money to buy weapons, warships and reorganised the soldiers to be ready for a future war. ALLIANCES: triple alliance: germany. Austriahungary, ottoman empire, italy. Entence cordiale: france, britain.(despues se cambia el nombre) triple entence: france,britain,russia.During the war this alliances suffered some changes:Central Powers:Germany, austriahungary,ottoman empire, bulgary,turkey. Allies:great britain, russia,italy,france. The Outbreak of the war: The murder of Francisco Fernando, the archduke heir to the Austrian-Hungary empire triggered the WW1. He was assassinated in 1914 in Sarajevo by a Serbian student (a member of the secret Black Hand society that was a nationalist association).At that time Serbia was supported by Russia, so as Russia belonged to Triple Entente, the rest countries of this military alliance defended Serbia, when the Austrian-Hungarian and the Triple Alliance attacked Serbia. So the war between the two sides started. Phases of the war:1The War of movements (battle of Marne and Tannenberg): In this phase the armies took place near the borders and two fronts appeared. Germany invaded Belgium and Luxembourg, attacked the North of France but was stopped by French and British army in the Battle of Marne. And Germany also defeated Russian army in the battle of Tannenberg 2Trench warfare:The fronts between the French and British army and the Germany army became fixed and immobilised. So the trenches of both armies that were separated by “no man land”, were dug from Switzerland to the North Sea. Any advances made during this phase resulted in a heavy loss of lifes. As a result Turkey, Italy, Bulgaria and Romania entered the war. Germans tried to break the Trench front, but the allies stopped them in the Battle of Verdun. Later, Britain and France attacked the German lines in the Battle of the Somme but without much success. This was the worse war, because in the north-east part of France, there were long amounts of casualties.3final stage:After the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, Russia signed with Germany the Brest-Litovsk in 1918. It was a peace treaty signed because Russia wanted to be concentrated in the communist. After the sinking of the US transatlantic liner Lusitania (line that determined the union between UK and USA) by a German submarine, USA entered the conflict.In 1918 Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire called for an armistice, so the Eastern front disappeared. It was when Germany signed the armistice on 11th November 1918. Guillermo II, the kaiser, abdicated and the Weimar republic was proclaimed. The war was won by the Triple Entente (Allies) , because of the armistice signed by them.Trenches: (2nd phase)front line trench: this trench is the first trench after the front between the two armies, and the distance of no man land. Here the soldiers are fighting against the soldiers of the other first trench army, they had to shoot to the enemies. But they always died there.Support trench: is the second trench, there were soldiers that replaced the soldiers of the front line trench when they died or when they got tired.Reserve trench: here there are new soldiers, that are preparing themselves to moved to the support trench. After the war: Triple Alliance became Central powers, formed by Germany, Austria-Hungary as the most important. And other countries like Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire supported them. Triple Entente became Allies, formed by Great Britain, France and Russia (that in 1917 left the war and signed the Brest Litovsk treaty) as the most important and they were supported by Italy that changed side when when the war began, USA (1918), Portugal, Serbia, Romania, Greece.. Consequences of the war: Lost of casualties due to the use of chemical weapons; about 10 million of soldiers, injured people and civil people due to the lack of food, diseases and new weapons like mustard gas, machine gun, zeppelin, tanks, first planes... Also it produced the creation of new borders, with a new European political map. After the WW1, Europe lost power. It was substituted by USA. The organisation of peace: the treaties. First a country had to leave the war. Later it had to be established a peace treaty (relationship) between both countries. Finally the country that won the war, established the conditions of the country that lost the war. And they had to sign a treaty in which the country that lost the war have to pay a quantity of money (selected by the others) as war reparations. treaties: The Treaty of Versailles signed with Germany, that was the most important,It was signed by Grain Britain and France with Germany. At first it declared that German was the one responsible for the war (but we know that the war was formed because of the rivalry between the european countries because of the distribution of Africa, and the conquest of Oceania, Asia… and the period of preparation for the war). That’s to say that all of countries that participated on the war were responsible of it. Also it forced Germany to:Pay high war reparations, Reduce its army to avoid the repetition of that situation of war.Germany lost part of its European territories and all its colonies: three colonies in Africa, some colonies in the islands of Oceania, some concessions in Chinese coasts (Japan).the Treaty of Saint Germain-en-Laye signed with Austria, Austrian-Hungarian empire disappeared.Austria and Hungary were divided in 2 different countries.New countries appeared after that empire like Czechoslovakia in the south (Bosnia-herzegovina) joined with Serbia and Croatia and appeared Yugoslavia. Some territories of that empire became Polish Romanian territories… The Treaty of Sevres signed with the Ottoman Empire.