What are the two stages of development of the Greek Civilization

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Fundamental characteristics of Living Organisms

1. Living things have motion, they move. Plants move in order to catch sunlight for photosynthesis

2. Living things respire. Respiration is a chemical reaction, which occurs inside cells to release energy from the food ingested.

3. Living things are sensitive to touch (and other stimuli as well) and have the capability to sense changes in their environment.

4. They grow. Living things mature and grow through different stages of development.

5. They acquire and fulfil their nutritional requirements to survive through the process of nutrition and digestion, which involves engulfing and digesting the food.

6. Some living organisms are also autotrophic, which means they can harness the sun’s energy to make their food (also known as autotrophs).

7. The digested food is eliminated from the body through the process of excretion.

Applications of Genetic EngineeringTo mass-produce insulin, human growth hormone, follistim (for treating infertility), human albumin, monoclonal antibodies, antihemophilic factors, vaccines, and other drugs.

Restriction Enzymes. - enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA molecules at specific sequences. They are commonly used in molecular cloning, DNA sequencing, and genetic engineering to create recombinant DNA molecules.

CELL SPECIALIZATION. - Cell specialization is the process by which generic cells change into specific cells that to do tasks in the body. Cells are organised into tissues, then into organs, then into organ systems and finally into an organism.

STEM CELL THERAPY.  ---  Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.

CONTRAST UNIPOTENT, MULTIPOTENT AND PLURIPOTENT CELLS. - Pluripotent stem cells can go to all types of cells in an organism and Multipotent and Unipotent cells are restricted to a particular tissue.

APPLICATIONS OF STEM CELL THERAPY.  --- In stem cell transplants, stem cells replace cells damaged by chemotherapy or disease.

DNA - DNA is a molecule that contains the instructions to develop, live and reproduce. It is made up of four different molecules; Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine they are arranged into sequences that store and transmit information.            Genes - Genes are units of heredity that are found within each cell in our body and transmit information from one generation to the next. Genes are made up of DNA, a chemical code that carries instructions for the development, functioning and behavior of all living organisms.            Gel Electrophoresis. - to separate mixtures of DNA, RNA, or proteins according to molecular size.     

Purpose of PCR amplification.it allows rapid amplification of a specific segment of DNA which identifies of gene sequences. 

CONTRAST PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS. - Prokaryotes are always unicellular, while eukaryotes are often multi-celled organisms.

PRIMARY ROLE OF CELLULAR ORGANELLS. - They maintain homeostasis in the cell, for example energy production.

USE OF LIGHT MICROSCOPES TO DETERMINE CELL SIZE. - Divide the number of cells in view with the diameter of the field of view to figure the estimated length of the cell.

Successfully make and observe a wet mount slide. - Collect your sample and place one drop on the microscope slide to see the size and shape of individual organisms.

Explaination of fluid mosaic model of cellular membrane - It describes the cell membrane as a tapestry of several types of molecules (phospholipids, cholesterols, and proteins) that are fluid and constantly moving.

Passive vs active transport: diffusion vs osmosis. - Passive transport does not require energy while active transport needs energy to take place. Both diffusion and osmosis do not require energy because the substances move down the concentration gradient.

Transcription and Translation. - Proteins must first be transcribed into molecules of mRNA; then, these transcripts must be translated into chains of amino acids, which later fold into fully functional proteins. 

Factors that influence rate of diffusion. - Temperature, concentraion gradient, size of the molecule, and the presence of a membrane.

Cells in hypertonic, isotonic and hypotonic solutions. - If a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, water leaves the cell, and the cell shrinks. In an isotonic environment, there is no change in the cell size. When a cell is placed in a hypotonic environment, water enters the cell, and the cell will swell.

Role of ATP in cell energy. -ATP provides energy needed for essential processes in organisms and cells.

Importance of photosynthesis, light dependent vs light independent. - The goal of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis is to collect energy from the sun and break down water molecules to make ATP and NADPH.

Factors that influence rate of photosynthesis.-Light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. 

Aerobic vs Anaerobic Respiration. - Aerobic respiration releases more energy than anaerobic respiration.
3 Stages of Cellular respiration - Glycolysis; the citric acid (TCA), The Krebs Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain.
Watson Crick model of DNA - Double Helix that contained two long, helical strands wound together.
Protein Synthesis. - Without it, our bodies will not be able to make components like hormones, enzymes, and even new muscle.

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