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a reaction in which 2 molecules join is called anabolic and produces NH2. Glucose and starch are CH. Glucose+fructose=sucrose. Unsaturated fats increase HDL levels. Amino acid has a H and R group bonded to a carbonatom, as well as NH2 and COOH. Adenine, cytosine, guanine (thymine in D and uracil in R). saponifiable lipids - phospholipids, fats and waxes. factors that afect enzyme activity: temp, pH levels and substarte concentration. 4 groups od biomolecules are CH, lipds, proteins and nucleic acids. Schleiden. kingmos with cells that contain mitochondria: an, pl, fungus and protoctist. Organelles of endosymbiotic origin: mitoch and chloroplast. Mitopchondria performs the aerobic cell respiration. nonsaponifiable: steroids and terpenes. tRNA - carry a.A to the ribosomes. 2 alleles of same tipe - Homozygous. Different versions os a gene are - alleles. The expression os an organism´s genotype - Phenotype. Genes that are located in the same chromosome - linked genes. Requirements for evolution to happen according to Darwinism: diversity among individuals, scarcity of resources - struggle for survival, natural selection of fittest. community: group of pop in an ecosys. ecological niche: role played by a species. population: group of organisms from the same species. habitat: the environments in which a species lives.

autotrphs: synthesise their own molecules from simple inorganic sub ( sunligh - photosynthesis, OR oxidation of molecules). Heterotrophs - obtain their organic colecules from other organisms. Nitrogen fixing bacteria, nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria. endosimbiotic theory: The endosymbiotic theory states that some of the organelles in eukaryotic cells were once prokaryotic microbes. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the same size as prokaryotic cells and divide by binary fission. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA which is circular, not linear. every single cell that forms a multicellular organism carries its own actions, although there is certain amount of coordination btw them. Replication: 1 )denaturation - DNA is heated to 95 to break down dna hydrogen bonds and separate the 2 strands. 2) annealing - the temp is cooled to 55. 3) elongation - temp is increased again to 72, which encourages Taq DNA polymerase to replicate both strands, starting at the primer, producing two double stranded copies of the original DNA.

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