Interface metaphase telophase

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Meiosis is a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.

Prophase I is divided into five stages: leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, and diakinesis.

Phases of meiosis:

Prophase I: Chromosomes are formed from condensed chromatin.

Metaphase I: Bivalents are positioned on the equator of the cell.

Anaphase I: Homologous chromosomes are separated.

Telophase I: Chromosomes reach the spindle poles.

Prophase II: The meiotic spindle is re-created.

Metaphase II: the chromosomes, composed of two chromatids, align along the equator.

Anaphase II: The microtubules pull the chromatids to opposite poles of the cell. 

Telophase II: Four daughter cells are present.

Crossing-over: When chromosomes pair in early prophase of the first meiotic division (meiosis I)

The main purpose of meiosis is to generate four daughter cells, each with a reduced amount of genetic information.

Difference between mitosis and meiosis:

In meiosis homologous chromosomes separate leading to daughter cells that are not genetically identical. In mitosis the daughter cells are identical to the parent as well as to each other.

Animal Kingdom

-Nervous System (most important)

-Locomotion (movements)




-Multicellular (some are unicellular)


  • Diversity

Vertebrates: Phylum Chordata, Birds, Fish, Reptiles, Mammals and Amphibious.

Invertebrates: Phylum Porifera (Sponges), Cnidaria (Cnidarians), Platyhelminthes (Flat worms), Nematode (Round worms)
,Rotifera (Rotifers), Annelida (Ring worms),Arthropods (Insects, crustaces, Cienpies, Arachnids),
Mollusca (Octupus, shells) and Echinodermata (Starfish, Plankton).

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