Henry VIII, Elizabeth I, Cromwell, and the Restoration: Key Events in English History

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HENRY VIII (1491-1547)

England from 1509. 2nd Tudor monarch. Best known for his 6 marriages & 4 efforts to have the 1st, Catherine of Aragon, annulled & Anne Boleyn. England, Catholic country and the head of the Church, the Pope, would not allow divorce, Catholic marriage for life. Made Church officials swear that he was leader=arrange his own divorce. Process called the reformation and confirmed by the Act of Supremacy (1534) declared Henry Supreme Head of the Church of England. England had accepted the separation, Henry went one step further and the chief’s minister place was taken by Thomas Cromwell. He declared any monks who spoke against him traitors and had them executed. 1536-1540 Henry VIII ordered the closing down of all: Roman Catholic monasteries and convents across his kingdom. He took ownership of all their possessions. Dissolution of the Monasteries. During this Thomas More beheaded for refusing to accept king Henry VIII as Head of Church.

ELIZABETH I (1533-1603)

The Virgin Queen/Gloriana, Queen of England & Ireland from 1558. Last monarch House of Tudor & daughter of Henry VII & Anne Boleyn. Most glorious queen of England. Tough childhood, since her father had her mother executed when Elizabeth was only 3 years old, and she was taught by ladies in waiting. CHURCH LAWS. Anglican, she tried not to oppress the Catholics as her predecessors had. Forced accept the title of Supreme Governor Church of England rather than the title of Supreme Head, considered unacceptable for a woman. The new Act of Supremacy became law on 8 May 1559. public to swear loyalty to the monarch as the supreme.


This period (1649-1660) known as the Commonwealth of England. It was at this time when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the 2 Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. Due to frequent fights of the different parliamentary forces the 3 English Civil War happened. The leaders were Oliver Cromwell (1653-1658) and Richard Cromwell (1658-1659). In 1653 the period that now we know as the Protectorate occurred. Was an English military leader & Member of Parliament. Known for being Lord Protector & helping to make England a republic. THE RESTORATION Charles II’s father, Charles I, was executed on January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on Feb 1649, England entered the period known as English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell, who became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland and Charles spent the next nine years in exile. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of monarchy and Charles was invited to return to Britain. On May 1660, he was received in London to public acclaim.


Europeans who cross the Atlantic, disembark on land unsettled by Europeans, find a site, and begin to build with the intention of staying, not exploring. VIRGINIA COMPANY commercial trading company chartered by King James I of England in April 1606. The aim was establishing a permanent colony in America that would make a profit for the company. They thought that if they could convert all of the Powhatans to Christianity it would help the survival and economic prosperity of Jamestown. 2 divisions: The Plymouth Company would establish a colony at the mouth of the Kennebec River. The London Company would establish Jamestown in Virginia. Planters were required to work for the Company. In exchange they were provided with housing, clothing and food. John Rolfe was a settler, having introduced Caribbean tobacco into the colony. Tobacco became Virginia’s chief export and launched an economic boom for the colony. 1621, the Company was in trouble; unpaid dividends and increased use of lotteries had made future investors wary. The Company debt was now over £9000. Company’s and the colony’s situation went from dire to disastrous & dissolved in 1924

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