- Etymological: "philosophy" "love of wisdom".
- Homer (Sophia): ability, skill or technique
- Herodotus (Sophos): anyone who outstands because of the perfection and quality of his works
- Heraclitus (Philosophus): a philosopher is a good researcher of many things
- Pythagoras: disinterested effort that leads to the quest for knowledge
- Plato: Philosophy is a participation of Wisdom. It's a tendency.
- Stoicism: philosopher is the calm, patient person, who never loses control
- Scholasticism: philosophy is the supreme human natural science
- Positivism: philosophy is reflection with no foundations
"Science of all things through ultimate causes, attained by the light of natural reason alone".
B. Formal object (point of view)
a. Infra scientific psychology:
- Knowledge that everyone can have of himself and of others by ordinary means
- Purpose: practical