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CONTEXT England between 449–1066;    1. The Conquest . According to the Venerable Bede, the invasion of Britain began in 449, when the British king Vortigern Invited Germanic mercenaries under Hengest and Horsa to help protect Britain From the Picts and IrishandThe Roman army had withdrawn from Britannia in 410.

Then, The invaders came in small bands and spread Inland, overcoming British resistance (they were not unified) So The newcomers First settled in the south and east of the island, but gradually extended their Dominance to the west and the north//     The Jutes took Kent and the Isle of Wight; The Saxons the Thames valley And south of it; and The Angles the Midlands and the North//   As a result, small tribal kingdoms emerged, The chief ones being Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex, Kent, and East Anglia. The Invasion and settlement was complete by 597.//  Additionally,  The unification of England was at first ecclesiastical . The name of England derives from Engla-land, The land of the Angles, a term which appears at the end of the period.  But an English national consciousness is Something which began to crystallise only with Alfred’s resistance to the Danes.//   The battle of Chester with the West Saxon Victory of Bedcanford in 571 marks the confining of independent British Strength to Wales, and the virtual completion of the conquest of what is now England.       //   2. CONVERSION The second phase is the period of the conversion Of the Anglo-Saxons and their eventual unification under the kings of Wessex (597–793).  At this stage, when pagan English had triumphed over Christian Britons, the Roman mission sent by Pope Gregory the Great arrived in Thanet (597).//        Finally, By 680 all the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms Were ruled by Christian kings. There is an aspect of the conversion that is Often forgotten, namely, that Britain was Christian before the Anglo-Saxon Invasion, and that no conversion was required in Wales, but the Britons made no Effort to convert their conquerors. 3. THE SCANDINAVIAN PHASEThe Third phase (793–1066) is the Scandinavian phase.  At first the Danes wanted plunder rather than land for settlement. In 865 the Danes brought An army in order to rob more systematically, overrunning most of Northumbria And East Anglia. The Danes failed to partition Wessex due to King Alfred’s Resistance. //    After initial defeat in The spring of 878, Alfred withdrew and gathered a force that compelled the Danes To leave Wessex and later in 886 he recaptured London. He was then able to Treat with the Danish king Guthrum the division of England south of the Humber And With Alfred’s effort the reconquest of the areas occupied by the Danish Armies was only a matter of time.

 //     After the battle of Brunanburh (937) in Which an army from Wessex and Mercia defeated the Northmen, King Athelstan Reigned over all England. Also, The Scandinavian attacks were renewed in 975. The New attacks took the form of raids followed by an army ready to do more than Loot and this army continued the attacks from 997 to 1002, when King Ethelred Unraed (‘no-counsel’) bought them off with money.//    When Ethelred died in 1016, the Danish king Cnut was left without a Rival. For a short time Cnut united Norway, Denmark, and England in a single Kingdom but Cnut’s empire broke up after his death (1035), and the kingship Returned to the old royal house in the person of Edward.

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