besiege: surround a place in order to attack it. Bipartisian: involving Two political parties. Caciquismo: undemocratic use of democratic power by Local leaders. Cadiz Cortes: first national assembly in Spain to claim Sovereignty. Camarillismo: the influence of a group on politics of a country For personal gain, hidden from general public. Canton: independent division of A country. Carlism: conservative of political movement in Spain that supported Infante Carlos as king and defended absolutism. Carlist Wars:civil wars Foughtin Spain between liberal supporters of Isabella II and Carlists. Census Suffrage: right to vote given to only some people. Confessional state: country That officially pratises a particular religion. Fueros: regional and local Rights and privileges granted to a specific group of people. Guerrila warfare: Type of irregular war in which armed civilians attack a regular army. Junta: Local administrative boy in 19 century in Spain. National Militia: armed group Of citizens that defended Constitution and opposed absolutism in Spain. Pragmatic sanction: royal decree that has the force of law. Pronunciamiento: Military revolt. Regent: person who administers a country because the monarch Is minor, absent or ill. Salic Law: law that exclude women from the right to Ingerit the throne. Secular: not religious. Spanish War Independence: military Conflict from 1807 and 1814 between Napoleon's Empire and Spain, Portugal and Britain. Treaty of paris: agreement signed in 1898 between USA and Spain. Turno Pacifico: peaceful alternation of power between political parties. Backwardness: behind others in development or progress. Barcelona Weavers Association:the first trade union in Spain. Blast Furnace: a type of large Industrial oven used in metallurgy. Emigration: act of leaving your home counry To live in another. Industrial colony: a community of workers near a factory, With housing and services.Ironworks: a factory where iron is produced or iron Objects are made. Liberal land reform: a series of reforms that introduced Capitalist forms of ownership and production. Ley Moyano: the first educational Law in Spain, which introduced free compulsory education. Marxism: a social, Political and economic theory based on Karl Marx’s writings. Minign : the act Or industry of extracting minerals, usually underground. Modernism: a 19- Century cultural movement that rejected tradition. Peseta: the official Spanish Currency between 1869 and 31 December 2001. Private sector: business and Industries that are not owned by the government. Rural exodus: population Movement from the countryside to the city. Spanish General Worker’s Union (UGT): a major Spanish trade union, affiliated with the PSOE. Stock exchange: a Place or system which stocks are bought and sold. Trade union an organization That defends the rights of people who work in a particular industry.