ALKANES- Are a homologous series of similar hydrocarbons(compounds of carbon and hydrogen only) in which all the carbons are joined to each other with single covalent bonds.
ALKENES- Are homologous series of hydrocarbons which contain a carbon double bond.
STRUCTURAL ISOMERS- Are molecules with the same molecular formula, but different structural formulae.
ISOMERS- Are compounds which have the same molecular formula but different strctural formulae.
EMPIRICAL FORMULAE- Tells you the simplest whole ratio of the atoms in a compound.
MOLECULAR FORMULA- Counts the total number of each type of atom present in a molecule.
STRUCTURAL FORMULAE- Shows how the atoms in a molecule are joined together.
DISPLAYED FORMULAE- Shows all the bonds in the molecule as individual lines
COMBUSTION- Just another way of saying burning and involves reaction with oxygen.
CRUDE OIL- Mixture of hydrocarbons, compunds containing carbon and hydrogen only.
CRUDE OIL- Has no uses, has to be separated into fractions before it can be used.
REFINERY GASES-Mixture of methane, ethane, propane and butane, which can be separated into individual gases if required.
GASOLINE(PETROL)- Mixture of hydrocarbons with similar boling points, used for fuel.
KEROSENE- Used for fuel for a jet craft.
FUEL OIL- Used for fuel for ships and industrial heating.
BITUMEN- Thick black material, which is melted and mixed into small pieces of rock to make the top of the surface of roads.
POLYMERISATION OF PROPENE- Another alkene, this time with three different carbons atoms in each molecule.
USES OF POLY(PROPENE)- Used to make ropes and crates.
POLYMERISATION OF CHLOETHENE- Is a molecule in which one of the hydrogen atoms is ethene is replaced by a chlorine.
USES OF POLY(CHLOROETHENE)- It is quite strong, used for water pipes or replacement windows.
THE POLYMERISATION OF TETRAFLUOROETHENE- Derived from ethene in which all four hydrogen atoms are replaced by flurine.
USES OF POLY(TETRAFLUOROETHENE)- Used as a non stick coating for pots and pans, very ureactive due to the strong carbon-fluorine bonds.