Catolicavirtual empire

Classified in History

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(CONSULATE799-804)In 1799, Napoleon was named consul, and the Consulate's rule began.This was a period of autocratic and authoritarian rule. Napoleon aspired to put an end to the political instability of the Revolution, consolidate some of the revolutionary principles and promote economic recovery through a government that represented the interests of the bourgeoisie.(The Constitution of 1800 Liberties were very limited and censorship was imposed to control public opinion.)(The state was organised into departments that were run by prefects who implemented government policies.)(The public finance sector was reformed, and state schools (lyceés) were created to educate an elite of civil servants. Signed an agreement with the Church called a concordat, and a civil code for all citizens was drawn up.)(A commercial code was established to stimulate the economy, the Bank of France was created, and new banknotes were issued.)(EMPIRE:Napoleon began his conquest of Europe in 1803 and was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804. His large army and the use of new military tactics enabled him to defeat most European monarchies (e.G. Russia, Austria, Naples, the Kingdom of Holland, Prussia and the Duchy of Warsaw). After France's victory over Austria and Russia at Austerlitz (1805), the French troops seemed unstoppable. In 1808, the French invaded Spain, and Joseph Bonaparte, one of the emperor's brothers, was made king. In 1811, the Napoleonic Empire had reached its zenith: it extended from Germany to Spain. France now controlled most of Europe.)(DEFEAT:The Napoleonic military campaigns sparked two types of reaction in the countries occupied by the French:(On the one hand, the abolishment of absolute monarchies and the suppression of manorial rights had the support of European liberals.)(On the other hand, invasion by a foreign army, the indiscriminate violence by its soldiers and the submission to French interests caused strong anti-French sentiment.)(REJECTION: The French armies occupied the European nations by force and made Napoleon's family&army generals their leaders.They also collected taxes,did business,appropriated their wealth&recruited soldiers on top of spreading liberal ideals.This caused the emergence of resistance movements (coalitions)&provoked strong nationalist feelings in conquered countries such asSpain,Poland,Germany and Italy.) In 1815, the imperial armies were finally defeated in Waterloo by Britain and Prussia. Napoleon abdicated after the defeat and was sent into exile on the island of Santa Elena, where he died in 1821.

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