bio quiz

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-Antigen:Molecule that the immune system identifies as foreign and responds to by forming antibodies.

-Antibody: Large, Y-shaped proteins produced by B cell that recognize and bind to antigens in a humoral immune response.

-Memory Cell: Lymphocyte (B or T cell) that retains a “memory” of a specific pathogen after an infection is over and thus provides immunity to the pathogen.

-Immunity:Ability to resist a pathogen due to memory lymphocytes or antibodies to the antigens the pathogen carries.

-Immunization: Deliberate exposure of a person to a pathogen in order to provoke an immune response and the formation of memory cells specific to that pathogen


-The FIrst line of defense consists of the body’s mechanical, chemical, and biological barriers.

Examples of barriers include skin (mechanical), which physically prevents pathogens from coming in, and mucuscontaining enzymes (chemical), which destroys pathogens that come into contact with the enzymes.

•Non-pathogenic bacteria (biological) take up space and resources to prevent other harmful microorganisms from surviving.

-The first line of defense is nonspecific - the response is always the same, no matter what the pathogen type is.


The second line of defense protects against an agent that manages to break through the first line, such as through a cut on the skin. The second line includes the inflammatory response and phagocytosis by nonspecific leukocytes

-The inflammatory response is the body’s first reaction against infection or tissue damage.

-Nonspecific leukocytes are used in phagocytosis, in which the leukocytes engulf and break down any type of pathogens they come across


If a pathogen manages to penetrate the first line and survive the second line, the third line of specific response is then triggered, also known as the immune response.

There are two types of the immune response: humoral immune response and cell-mediated immune response.


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