POLITICAL PARTIES the modern concept of political Parties formed from the ashes of the Cavaliers and Roundheads. The Cavaliers evolved into the Tory Party, royalists intent on preserving the King’s authority, while the Roundheads transformed into the Whig Party, men of Property dedicated to expanding trade abroad. JAMES II (1633-1701) Stuart of England, Scotland &Ireland who in 1688 was overthrown In the ‘Glorious Revolution’ by William III. James converted to Catholicism and Took a stand against a number of anti-Catholic moves. This didn’t impede his Succession to the throne on Charles’ death 1685. Attempts to give equality to Roman Catholic and Protestant, led to conflict with parliament. 1689, James Army in Ireland with French support.Defeated by William at the Battle of the Boyne in1690.GLORIOUS REVOLRevolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with Dutchstadtholder William III, Prince of Orange.MARY II AND WILLIAM IIIruled Britain in Glorious Revolution of 1688. She was a devoted Protestant, and many Parliamentarians & nobles wanted Mary to be monarch. Their accession, was an important Transition towards parliamentary rule as we know it today. William’s ousting of His predecessor, the Catholic James II, ensured the primacy of the Protestant Faith in Britain. Victory Battle of the Boyne celebrated annually in Northern Ireland on 12 July. BILL OF RIGHTS Act of the Parliament that Deals with constitutional matters and certain basic civil rights. Established Principles of frequent parliaments, free elections &freedom of speech Within Parliament. Received the Royal Assent in 1689 and is a restatement in Statutory form of the Declaration of Right presented by the Convention Parliament to William III and Mary II.ACT OF SETTLEMENT Act of the Parliament that was Passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English &Irish crowns on Protestants only. The next Protestant in line to the throne was Sophia of Hanover. Under this act anyone who became a Roman Catholic, or who married one, Became disqualified to inherit the throne.S. XVIII – XIXTHE HOUSE OF HANNOVER In 18and 19appeared a new Ruling house: George I,George II.George III, George IV, William IV, Victoria. Royal German dynasty that ruled Kingdom of Hannover, provided monarchs of GB&Ireland until the death of Queen Victoria. Jacobites supported the Restoration of the Stuarts to the throne, which increased during the reign of George II. During the long reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901) Britain became One of the most powerful countries in the world.GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL REFORMS. REFORM BILL 1832 The most important change came During William IV’s reign with the Whigs Introducing the Reform Act of 1832. Reform Bill was any of the British parliamentary bills that Expanded the electorate for the House Of Commons and rationalized the representation of that body. The 1st Reform Bill primarily served to transfer voting privileges.The british Empire&colonies. Britain had been Expanding its territory beyond the seas since 16th century. Britain invaded and Occupied most of Germany’s overseas colonies in Africa. After the Fall of France, Britain stood against Germany. Though Britain&the empire emerged Victorious from the 2 World War, the effects of the conflict were profound. Britain was left bankrupt. British Empire’s days were numbered.VICTORIAN BRITAIN. Period of Queen Victoria’s Reign(1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. Characterised as one of relative Peace among the great powers (as established by the Congress of Vienna), Increased economic activity, &national self-confidence for Great Britain.