Woman called Donna Truhana

Classified in Philosophy and ethics

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3.-Explain the shift that Feminist Studies experienced at the turn of the 21st century into Feminisms and Gender Studies. In doing so, identify some key authors and their theoretical contribution to the field. In the third wave an academic institutionalization of feminist discourses takes place.  The situation changes from a single feminism to a variety of feminisms, and from those feminisms to women and gender studies. In this period of feminism, we could name authors such as Butler, who made important contributions to the study of gender identities and feminism, and  Chandra Talpade Mohanty. Feminist theory suffers a crisis and feminist theories take place, women are not seen as a compact, uniform group, but as a collective with different sub groups inside it (Cultural feminism, Ecofeminism, Cyberfeminism, Queer and Lesbian feminisms, Black feminism, Feminism and multiculturalism, Third World feminism… among others). At the time this is stated, we could also talk about intersectional feminism, one of the most remarkable concepts in modern feminism. Intersectional feminism is the recognition that there are many kinds of women experiencing different forms of discrimination based on race, income, sexual orientation... Among others. It is also relevant to name the sex vs gender opposition. According to Butler “if the immutable character of sex is contested, perhaps this construct called “sex” is as culturally constructed as gender “. What is meant by this, is that gender is not stable, it is a bound to cultural performativity and whose constitutive acts are not a being but a doing. In contrast, sex is not “pre-discursive” and it is also gendered as it does not determine whether one can become a man or a woman. Apart from that, Butler does also state that there are “two dimensions of gender performativity”. On the one hand, the “unchosen” genderassignment and the “performative action” which is how we engage with the expectations of performativity based on our assigned gender.

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