Wireless Communication: Characteristics, Types, and Processes

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Characteristics of Wireless Communication

  • Information is sent and received using areal, infrared light, or ultrasound signals.
  • The waves are propagated through space at the speed of light.

Characteristics of a Wave

  1. Amplitude: The maximum value that a wave can reach, which depends on the wave's energy. The value diminishes with distance and is measured in meters.
  2. Frequency: The number of times the wave oscillates per second, measured in Hz.
  3. Period: The time it takes for the wave to complete a cycle, measured in seconds.
  4. Wavelength: The distance it takes for a wave to complete a cycle, measured as the distance between two crests.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum encompasses all electromagnetic waves from low to high frequency.

Frequency Spectrum

The frequency spectrum is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum between frequencies of 3 KHz and 800 KHz. It is divided into frequency bands used for different types of communication.

7AM Radio

Invented by Marconi, 7AM Radio operates with a frequency range between 540 KHz and 1600 KHz. It uses two signals: an audio signal and a carrier wave. The amplitude changes with the audio signal, while the frequency remains constant.

8FM Radio

8FM Radio stations broadcast between 88 MHz and 108 MHz. It also uses two signals: an audio signal and a carrier wave. Unlike 7AM Radio, 8FM Radio changes frequency instead of amplitude.

Mobile Phones

Mobile phones are portable, wireless electronic devices that have evolved into personal computers. They contain microprocessors capable of performing tasks beyond simple telephone functions.

Elements of a Mobile Phone Network

  1. Mobile Phone: A portable wireless electronic device used to send and receive information.
  2. Base Stations: Provide coverage to mobile phones within a specific geographical area (cell).
  3. Mobile Switching Centre: Connects mobile phone networks to landline telephone lines.
  4. Control Stations: Manage the handover of mobile phones between base stations as they move through different geographical areas.

Process of Wireless Communication

  1. Each base station provides coverage to a cell.
  2. The mobile phone transmitter sends data to the base station using binary signals (1 for high, 0 for low).
  3. The base station transmitter sends the signal to the base station receiver through a fiber optic cable.
  4. The control station directs the signal to the appropriate base station receiver.
  5. The mobile phone receiver receives the signal from the base station receiver using an electromagnetic signal.

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