Urinary and Reproductive System Functions and Processes

Classified in Biology

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What is the primary waste product in urine?


Identify the body functions that the urinary system helps regulate and maintain.

  • Eliminate waste
  • Primarily Ammonia
  • Conserve nutrients
  • Prevent excretion
  • Regulate and maintain:
  • Blood volume
  • Blood pressure
  • Conserve ions (sodium, potassium, calcium)
  • Assist liver in detoxifying poisons

Briefly, in an essay, list and explain the three steps in urine production that occurs in the nephron. Terms like tubular reabsorption will not be given in question!

  1. Glomerular filtration
  2. Movement of protein-free solution and solutes from glomerulus into capsule space
  3. Tubular reabsorption
  4. Return of most of the fluid and solutes back into the capillaries
  5. Tubular secretion
  6. Addition of some solutes from the capillaries into the tubule

What type of epithelial tissue is found lining both the ureters and urinary bladder? What is its function?

Transitional epithelium
Can increase 6x size. Tubes that transport urine from kidney to urinary bladder

Match the medical condition with the urine characteristics. (such as color, clarity, density)

  • Urinalysis testing
  • Color
  • Clear and pale to deep yellow
  • Transparency
  • Healthy – clear
  • Cloud – infection
  • pH
  • Slightly acidic ~6
  • Varies on diet
  • Proteins – more acidic
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Glucose, ketones
  • Bacterial infection
  • RBS, WBC
  • Cloudy
  • Hepatitis
  • Bile pigments
  • Trauma
  • RBC, hemoglobin, protein

Identify what kidneys help do to maintain homeostasis of our bodies.

Maintain water balance • Regulate salt balance • Maintain acid-base balance of red blood cells • Control production of red blood cells • Activate and inactive form of vitamin D.

What happens in high levels of antidiuretic hormone? Low levels? Which endocrine gland releases ADH?

High levels of ADA produce very concentrated urine by stimulating reabsorption of more water into the blood • Absence of ADA the urine is very dilute

Know the steps/stages of the tubular system and accessory organs of the male reproductive system. i.e. the sperm flow from the epididymis into the ductus deferens.

  • Tubular reabsorption
  • Returns filtered water and solutes from the tubule into the blood
  • Tubular Secretion
  • Occurs in the tubule and collecting ducts.
  • Waste drugs, and excess ions are secreted from the renal tubule into the fluid.
  • This waste is being REMOVED from the blood not released into the blood!
  • Accessory organs
  • Seminal vesicle
  • Prostate gland
  • Bulbourethral gland

What structures make up the spermatic cord?

Ductus deferens, • blood vessels, and nerves in a connective tissue sheath

Know how each male accessory organ (seminal vesicle, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland) helps sperm’s success. This may be a multiple choice question.

  • Seminal Vesicle
  • Produces a thick, yellow secretion (60% of semen)
  • Prostate gland
  • Helps to activate sperm • Enters the urethra through several small ducts • Contains an antibiotic
  • Bulbourethral
  • Cleanses the urethra of acidic urine • Serves as a lubricant during sexual intercourse, secreted into the urethra.

In an essay, how does spermatogenesis and oogenesis differ? Where does this occur? What is the result? What hormone is involved?

Production of sperm cells • Begins at puberty and continues throughout life • Occurs in the seminiferous tubules • Spermatogonia undergo rapid mitosis to produce more stem cells before puberty • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) modifies spermatogonia division upon puberty, Oogenesis Total supply of eggs are present at birth • Ability to release eggs begins at puberty • Reproductive ability ends at menopause • Oocytes are matured in developing ovarian follicles

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