Understanding the Popular Front Program in Spain

Classified in History

Written at on English with a size of 5.43 KB.

Main idea:

Explaining the Popular Front program (3 important ideas:)

  • Intro: Explaining the purpose of the text: explaining the objectives agreed by the different left groups that united in a coalition, the Popular Front, drew up a common government program
  • Agreements between signatories: in 2 things X problems between republicans and socialists: Grant a broad amnesty to imprisoned for social and political reasons after the 1933 elections, Restore principles of Constitution 1931 and reforms initiated during the Reform Biennium
  • Disagreements between Socialists and Republicans: Measures proposed by Socialists not approved by Republicans (Nationalization of land, although they recognize the need to improve the system of land distribution to the peasantry and banking system) - These disagreements=2 ways of understanding Republic: Socialists defend socialist Republic (more directed to social and economic classes) - Republicans defend reformist Republic (for public interest that promotes reasons for a democratic regime of freedom and social freedom)

This text is very important because it shows the value of the union of the left. Socialists and Republicans joined to avoid repeating failure in elections. Even so, still important differences between both, due to the influence of the ideological plurality within the coalition. Therefore, as can be seen in the analysis, there were 2 ways of understanding the Republic (Social Republic for socialists and Reformist Republic for Republicans)


2nd part of Republic, end of the Black Biennium.

Pre: Context of formation of the Popular Front
  • International context: to face the rise of fascism (Nazism), the Communist International (Stalin) promoted in Europe an antifascist coalition with the name of Popular Front. The theory of the Popular Front soon put it into practice in Spain.
  • Internally: between 1933-1936 the influence of the politics of the radical right of right-wing groups based around the CEDA has to be taken into account. In the November 1933 elections for the first time women will be able to vote.
Not as it happened in the elections of 1931, the left was presented separately in these elections; On the other hand, the right made it united. All the reforms initiated during the previous two years (1931-1933) would be eliminated and steps were taken backwards. The unrest will spread in all corners, strikes and conflicts between groups of the extreme right will increase.
The 1934 revolt sprang from two different sources: radical middle class Catalanism and proletarian revolution.The revolt of October 1934 was the most serious moment of the Republic, and the most prominent places Asturias and Catalonia. The rebellion of Asturias will be an announcer of the civil war, which will divide the history of the 2nd Spanish Republic in two.The two sides(right-left)were clearly defined

Now: Conformation of the Popular Front

The serious social and economic situation of the country made necessary the union of all the left political forces again around the Popular Front, apart from returning to the reformist line of the reformist period and ending the policies of the Black Biennium

Financial attributions to several government ministers, black market scandals, wearied the government.

Popular Front was joined by Izquierda Republicana, Unión Republicana, UGT, PSOE, Juventudes Socialistas, PCE, POUM, Partido Sindicalista and ERC from Catalonia.

The program of the Popular Front will consist of undertaking a common plan of action, granting a broad amnesty to the reprisals for social and political crimes after the elections of 1933 during the period of government of the rights, defense of freedom and justice based on the Constitution of 1931, a regime of freedom imposed for reasons of public interest and social progress. Mainly apply the ideas that are exposed in the analysis of the text.


Due to the crisis of the government of the CEDA, Lerroux had to present his resignation. Alcalá Zamora again called elections on February 15, 1936

In this convulsive political situation, two major blocks were differentiated: the left and the right: Popular Front and National block. The Popular Front won the elections. The victory of the left wing would fuel the desire for conspiracy among the monarchist and right-wing military.

The new government recovered the laws of the first years of the republican era: political amnesty, reinstated the government of the Generalitat of Catalonia, brought the Basque statute to the Cortes, changed site to the generals close to the coup. The Cortes withdrew Alcala Zamora as president and put Azaña as president of the Republic.

After losing the elections, the military began to prepare the military uprising. On July 17, 1936 the troops of Morocco rose (Franco at the head) and Mola would rebel on the 18th in Navarra. The government did not take the measures that should have been thinking that the uprising would fail as in 1932. Thus began a 3-year civil war.

Entradas relacionadas: