Understanding Plurilingualism and Multilingualism: A Comprehensive Approach

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20)plurilingualism and multilingualism? This two terms are used to describe situations in which individuals or communities have proficiency in multiple languages. Although they are often used in the same way, they have some differences. -Plurilingualism refers to an individual's mastery or competence in a multiple language. It implies that the person is able to use and comprehend several languages fluently and efficiently. It highlights an individual's ability to communicate in different languages. -Multilingualis refers to the presence and use of multiple languages in a community. It refers to the coexistence of different languages in a given environment, where people should use more than one language in their daily lives. It is more about focusing on diversity of a community rather than individual proficiency(21) “plurilingual approach” The prurilingual approach refers to a perspective or framework that highlights the fact that when a speaker's linguistic experience expands, he or she does not keep languages and cultures in separate sections. Rather, the speaker develops a communicative competence based on all linguistic knowledge and experiences, in which languages are interrelated and interact with each other. Plurilingual refers to the ability to use languages for communication purposes and participate in intercultural interactions, where a person, viewed as a social agent, has competence to varying degrees in various languages and experience in various cultures. It is not a question of a superposition or juxtaposition of different competences, but of the existence of a complex or even composite competence on which the user can rely. - In summary, the multilingual approach recognizes the interconnection of languages, highlights the importance of communicative competence based on the dynamic and holistic use of the linguistic and cultural repertoires of individuals, and seeks to create an educational environment that promotes multilingualism and pluriculturalism. 22) plurilingual speaker? The multilingual speaker is characterized by possessing the following characteristics that reflect the complexity and richness of multilingual competence. Greater knowledge about language: The plurilingual speaker has a broader knowledge about language in general. The knowledge acquired in one language can be transferred to other languages. In addition, the linguistic knowledge acquired through a second language can change the overall linguistic knowledge of the speaker, it is not a mere repetition of learning the first language. Own linguistic repertoire: The plurilingual speaker has a particular linguistic repertoire, which is dynamic and evolves throughout his life. This repertoire is not limited to a sum of languages, but they are interrelated and influence each other. Linguistic awareness and metalinguistic skills: The prulirilgual speaker develops a greater linguistic awareness and metalinguistic skills. This implies a greater attention and ability to manage the different languages in their repertoire and use them appropriately in different communicative contexts. Changes in thinking and language use: Multilingual speakers think and use language slightly differently than monolinguals. In addition, they have a greater awareness of the language itself compared to monolinguals.Different knowledge of the first language: Multilingual speakers have a slightly different knowledge of their first language compared to monolinguals. Different brain structures: pruliringual speakers have different brain structures than monolinguals due to the experience and processing of multiple languages.23) “linguistic repertoire”?  The concept "linguistic repertoire" refers to the languages and linguistic varieties that a speaker knows and uses in his linguistic community. It is the set of language skills that an individual possesses, both in terms of active knowledge (speaking and writing) and passive (listening and understanding). The linguistic repertoire of a person determines his individual communicative competence, that is, his ability to construct grammatically correct sentences and apply language properly and appropriately in different communicative situations, including socio-cultural aspects. In the context of prulrilongual education, the linguistic repertoire acquires great importance. By recognizing and valuing the different languages and linguistic varieties present in each student's repertoire, an open attitude is promoted and interculturality is encouraged. It is essential to take into account and encourage all students' mother tongues, preventing them from being completely ignored during their academic experience. In doing so, linguistic diversity is recognized and an inclusive and respectful environment is created. 25)Integrated Treatment of Languages (ITL)  The Integrated Treatment of Languages (ITL) is a pedagogical approach based on the communicative approach to language teaching, in which the approach based on textual gender is considered relevant. The main objective of the ITL is to achieve a unified treatment of all the languages involved in the educational process, such as Basque, Spanish, English and French. The main objectives of the Integrated Language Treatment are the following: Use of languages: The learning of languages is promoted through their active use in communicative situations. It is considered that the pragmatic use of the language allows students to learn it effectively.Communicative approach: The aim is to provide a context in the classroom that allows for varied communicative exchanges, which facilitates the active participation of students and the development of their communicative skills in all languages.Positive attitude towards languages and speakers: The relevance that languages have in social interactions and in the emotional development of individuals is recognized. A positive attitude towards languages is encouraged and the linguistic diversity present in the school environment is valued.Inclusion: We seek to provide all students with the opportunity to develop multilingual communication skills, regardless of their native language. An inclusive environment is promoted where all the languages present in the classroom are respected and valued. The Integrated Treatment of Languages poses a challenge for teachers in terms of coordination and collaboration between them. The aim is to establish levels of coordination in the planning and programming of classes of all languages, unifying contents, terminology, methodologies and evaluation criteria. The need for an Integrated Treatment of Languages lies in the existing relationship between languages and in the transfer capacity possessed by bilingual or multilingual learners.

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