Understanding Nutrition: Fats, Proteins, Vitamins, and Minerals

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Saturated Fats

Carbon atoms fully saturated with hydrogen atoms. (meats, animal fats, lard, whole milk, butter, cheese, ice cream, coconut oil, palm oil)

Trans Fatty Acids

Solidified fat forms by adding hydrogen to MUFA and PUFA to increase shelf life


Condition of softening, deterioration, or loss of bone mineral density that leads to disability, bone fractures, and even death from medical complications


Classification for nutrients consisting of complex organic compounds containing nitrogen and forms by combinations of amino acids; the main substances used in the body to build and repair tissues

Amino Acids

Chemical compounds that contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; the basic building blocks the body uses to build different types of protein


Individual whose diet is of vegetable or plant origin

Lacto ovo vegetarian

Vegetarians who include eggs and milk in their diet

Pollo Vegetarian

Does not eat red meat but includes fish and poultry in addition to milk and eggs

Pesco Vegetarian

Consumed fish and seafood

Mediterranean Diet

Typical Diet of people around the Mediterranean region focusing on olive oil, red wine, grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits with limited amounts of meat, fish, milk, and cheese


Vegetarians who eat no animal products


Catalysts that facilitate chemical reactions in the body


Non-proteome compound necessary for functioning of an enzyme


Contributory cause of disease

Water soluble vitamin

B complex and C

Fat soluble vitamin

A, D, E, and K


Inorganic nutrients essential for normal body functions and found in the body and in food


Most important classification for essential body nutrients, involved in almost every vital body process


1st system used to produce energy. First 10-15 seconds. Produces as much energy as the body has stored

Nutrition standards

DRI- Dietary reference intake. General term that describes four types of nutrient standards that establish adequate amounts and maximum safe nutrient intakes in the diet

RDA- Recommended daily allowance

Daily amount of nutrient that is considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of almost 98% of all healthy people in the US


Compounds such as vitamin C and E, beta carotene and selenium that prevent oxygen from combining with other substances in the body to form harmful compounds




For most vitamins, 10 times the RDA or more. Vitamin A is 5 times

Carb loading

Increasing intake of carbs during heavy aerobic endurance that last longer than 90 minutes

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