Understanding Modern Science: Key Characteristics and Concepts

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Specific Characteristics of Modern Science


Galileo Galilei introduced a significant shift in the scientific method by emphasizing the crucial role of observation and experimentation. Recognizing that certain hypotheses could not be observed in everyday life, he advocated for creating controlled "ideal situations" through experiments to confirm or refute them.


Galileo firmly believed that nature operates according to regularities that can be expressed using mathematical functions. This emphasis on mathematization became a cornerstone of modern science, contrasting with earlier approaches to physics. By quantifying reality, scientists could avoid the subjectivity and ambiguity inherent in everyday language.

Scientific Concepts

Concepts are the specific terms used within each scientific discipline. They are clearly defined and can be categorized into three types:

  • Classifier Concepts: These concepts help organize reality into distinct sets or groups.
  • Comparative Concepts: These concepts enable the gradual sorting of elements within a group.
  • Metric Concepts: These concepts allow for the numerical measurement of object properties.


In science, a hypothesis is a tentative explanation for a specific problem that has not yet been proven. It involves assumptions or conjectures based on existing knowledge, aiming to clarify a phenomenon and expand our understanding. Unlike established laws, hypotheses require rigorous testing through experiments and empirical observations to determine their validity. If a hypothesis successfully withstands numerous tests, it may be accepted and potentially lead to the formulation of a new scientific law.

Scientific Laws

Laws are fundamental statements of scientific knowledge characterized by the following:

  • They utilize precisely defined concepts.
  • They explain all phenomena of a similar nature.

Scientific Theories

Science strives to explain broad areas of reality. To achieve this, scientific laws are interconnected with other laws, forming comprehensive, coherent, and consistent systems known as scientific theories.

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