Understanding Mixtures, Phases, and Chemical Reactions

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A mixture is a physical blend of two or more components.

Heterogeneous mixture

A mixture in which the composition is not uniform throughout is a heterogeneous mixture.

Homogeneous mixture

A homogeneous mixture is a mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout. Another name of homogeneous mixture is a solution.


The term phase is used to describe any part of a sample with a uniform composition and properties.


The process that separates a solid from the liquid in a heterogeneous mixture is called filtration.


One way to separate water from the other components in tap water is through a process called distillation.

Properties of Matter


The matter of an object is a measure of the amount of matter the object contains.


The volume of an object is a measure of the space occupied by the object.

Extensive property

Is a property that depends on the amount of matter in a sample.

Intensive property

Is a property that depends on the type of matter in a sample, not the amount of matter.

States of Matter


A gas is form of matter that takes both the shape and volume of its container.


Describes the gaseous state of a substance that is generally a liquid or solid at room temperature, as in water vapor.


A solid is form of matter that has definite shape and volume.


Is a form of matter that has an indefinite shape, flows, yet has a fixed volume.

Chemical Changes

Physical change

During a physical change, some properties of a material change, but the composition of the material does not change.

Chemical change

Chemical change is a change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter.

Elements and Compounds


Is the simplest form of matter that has a unique set of properties.


A compound is a substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed proportion.

The Periodic Table

Periodic table

Is an arrangement of elements in which the elements are separated into groups.


Each vertical column of the periodic table is called group, or family.


Each horizontal row of the periodic table is called period.

Chemical Reactions


A precipitate is a solid that forms and settles out of a liquid mixture.

Law of conservation of mass

The law of conservation of mass states that in any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is conserved.

Chemical property

The ability of a substance to undergo a specific chemical change is called chemical property.

Chemical reaction

A chemical change is also called chemical reaction. One or more substance change into one or more new substance during a chemical reaction.


A substance present at the start of the reaction is a reactant.


A substance produced in the reaction is a product.

Chemical symbol

Each element is represented by a one- or two- letter chemical symbol.

Substance and Properties


Matter that has a uniform and definite composition is called substance.

Physical property

Is a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance’s composition.

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