Understanding Human Reproduction and Sexuality

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Difference between primary and secondary sex characteristics:

The primary are the sexual organs which are born with and the secondary are the physical characteristics developed during puberty


Reproduction is the creation of new individuals

Explain the journey of sperm to the ovum:

After being secreted by the penis through the urethra, the sperm go from the vagina to the uterus. Then, they divide into 2 groups and go to each fallopian tube. If there’s an ovum, one of these single sperm will fertilize it, and they will form a zygote, divide and become a morula and later a blastocyst. On the 7th day, the blastocyst implants in the endometrium








Reproductive tract

Epididymis, urethra

Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina

-Copulation organs



Accessory glands

Seminal vesicles, cowper’s glands, prostate

Mammary glands




Formation of the sperm:

  1. Multiplication: Germ cells divide to produce spermatogonia

  2. Growth: Spermatogonia grow and divide into spermatocytes

  3. Maturation: Spermatocytes divide to produce spermatids

  4. Differentiation: Spermatids transform into spermatozoa

Semen is the whitish fluid produced by the seminal vesicles that is ejaculated

Formation of the ova

  1. The primary follicle is very small and immature, it contains primary oocyte

  2. The mature is large and holds the secondary oocyte

  3. During ovulation, the mature follicle ruptures and releases the ovum

  4. After the follicle releases the ovum, it becomes yellow

Female reproductive cycles

  • Hormones: estrogens, progesterone

  • Ovarian cycle: follicular phase: FSH stimulates several follicles to produce estrogens

  • Ovulation: when LH increases, the mature follicle releases the ovum

  • Luteal phase: these cause changes in the endometrium

Uterine cycle

  • Menstruation: the thickened endometrium breaks down and bleeding occurs

  • Pre-ovulation phase: the endometrium regenerates

  • Post-ovulation: the endometrium continues growing to house the fertilized ovum. If the ovum is not fertilized, it dies. The sudden drop in this hormone causes menstruation to begin on the 28th day

Birth control methods

  • Symptoms-based: vaginal flow, the woman's daily basal temperature, ovulation pain are noted to avoid intercourse on fertile days

  • Calendar-based: the approximate day of ovulation is calculated to predict fertile days

  • Coitus interruptus: ejaculation occurs outside the vagina, but semen secretions before ejaculation can cause pregnancy

Sexually transmitted diseases:

  • Sexual contact: bacterial: syphilis and gonorrhea

  • Viral: genital herpes

  • Fungal: vaginal thrush

Skin lesions:

  • Mucus: from the genitals, mouth, rectum

  • Body fluids: such as semen, saliva

Genital area:

  • Whitish secretions, ulcerous lesions, wart-like lesions, pain, itching

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