Understanding the Endocrine and Musculoskeletal Systems

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The Endocrine System

The endocrine is made up of coordinated groups of glands called endocrine glands. They are called endocrine because they release hormones into the bloodstream.


Hormones are chemical messengers that activate or stop, accelerate or delay many processes carried out by organs and tissues.

Health Diet (E.S)

Healthy diet, regulate moderate-intensity exercise, and don't consume drugs.

Health Diet

Healthy diet, exercise regularly, and practice correct postures.

The Control of Hormone Secretion

Feedback mechanisms in the endocrine system act similarly. When the amount of hormone in the blood reaches a specific level, a signal makes the gland stop releasing it.

How Hormones Work:

  1. Stimulated endocrine glands respond by producing hormones and releasing them into the blood.
  2. Only the cells with the specific receptors of that hormone are affected. These are the target cells.
  3. Hormone-receptor interaction triggers chemical reactions inside the cell producing a response.

How Does the Musculoskeletal System Work?

Works as a system of active components (muscle) exert force on the passive components (bone), causing body movement.

Relationship (Nervous and Endocrine)

The hypothalamus integrates both systems, receiving signals from many nervous system areas. Nervous and endocrine signals stimulate the hypothalamus to produce more nerve signals and hormones, controlling hormone release. This is called the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

Hypothalamus factors pituitary glands rest of the body

Diseases of the Endocrine: General Types

  • Hypofunction: Insufficient hormone production
  • Hyperfunction: Excessive hormone production
  • Dysfunction: Alterations in the receptors
  • Diabetes Mellitus:
    • Type 1: Difficult insulin production by the pancreas, preventing cells from using glucose in the blood, affecting young people.
    • Type 2: Pancreas produces insulin, but cells are unable to respond to it, more common in adults.
  • Hyperthyroidism: Excess thyroid hormone production, increasing metabolism.
  • Hypothyroidism: Defect in thyroid hormone production, causing a slowdown in metabolism.
  • Dwarfism and Gigantism: Deficient or excess hormone production by the pituitary.

The Musculoskeletal System

Enables the body to move with the skeletal system supporting body weight, providing shape, and protecting internal organs. The muscular system consists of skeletal muscles attached to bones by tendons, working as a system of levers for body movements.

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