Understanding Our Ecosystem

Classified in Geology

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Conditions for Life

Several key factors make life on Earth possible:

  • Water
  • A magnetic field
  • A protective atmosphere
  • Carbon compounds
  • An energy source

Biotic and Abiotic Factors

Biotope: The non-living part of an environment, including all abiotic factors.

Biocenosis: All living things from every species within a defined area that provides the necessities for survival.

Ecosystem: A natural environment where living things interact with each other and their surroundings.

Trophic Levels

Ecosystems often have distinct trophic levels:

  • Tertiary consumers
  • Secondary consumers
  • Primary consumers
  • Producers


Predation is an interspecific relationship where one living thing kills another for food.

Soil Composition

Topsoil: Composed of partially decomposed organic matter and most living organisms in the soil.

Subsoil: Formed by mineral particles and nutrients from decomposed organic remains in the topsoil.

Parent material: Unaltered material with no soil formation processes.



  • Very high biodiversity
  • Evergreen forests
  • Plants compete for light
  • Animals depend on their surroundings
  • Birds have brightly colored feathers


Tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.


  • Very low biodiversity
  • Plants have waxy surfaces and spines to withstand heat and drought
  • Animals have nocturnal habits

Factors Influencing Soil Formation

  • Type of rock
  • Climate
  • Rock characteristics
  • Age

The Ozone Layer and Its Importance

The ozone hole is a thin area in the ozone layer above Antarctica. As our primary filter against ultraviolet radiation, its reduction has serious consequences like skin cancer and cataracts.

Ecological Footprint and Responsible Consumption

Ecological footprint: Resources needed to sustain your lifestyle, measured in terms of Earth's physical area (approximately 2.7 hectares per person per year).

Tips for Responsible Consumption

Energy Use and Transport

Try to avoid car travel and use public transport, cycling, or walking.

Waste Management

Help facilitate the selection and recycling of waste material.

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