Understanding Digestion, Blood Composition, and the Endocrine System

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Amylase begins the digestive process by breaking down starch when you chew your food, converting it into a smaller carbohydrate. Pepsin helps digest the proteins in food because amylase is at the mouth and the pepsin at the stomach.


Is a body fluid in the small intestine. It is turbid and milky due to the presence of emulsified fats. Is formed from the chyme during the digestion of fatty foods.

Intestinal Flora

Is the symbiotic bacteria occurring naturally in the gut.


Is the final action of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.

Mechanical Digestion

This is the enzymatic breakdown of large, complex molecules found in food into smaller, simpler, more soluble nutrient molecules.

Chemical Digestion

The breakdown of food in the mouth, stomach, and intestines through the use of acids and enzymes.

Mediterranean Diet

Eating primarily plant-based foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts. Replacing butter with healthy fats such as olive oil and canola oil. Using herbs and spices instead of salt to flavor foods. Limiting red meat to no more than a few times a month.

Blood Composition

Is considered a type of connective tissue as its cells are surrounded by abundant extracellular material. Is a liquid. The composition is blood plasma, blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, red blood cells.

The Endocrine System

Plays an important role in homeostasis because hormones regulate the activity of body cells.

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