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Q1.The _________layer is responsible for translation, compression, and encryption of data.


Q2.   The _______ layer Converts bits into electronic signals for outgoing messages.


Q3.The difference between the maximum and minimum signal heights is called_________


Q4.The difference between the highest and lowest frequencies of the constituent parts of an analog signal is called____________


Q5.If a system that operates at 1000 baud has four signal levels then the system can transfer _____________ bits per second


Q6.A digital signal represents________


Q7.If the time required for one cycle of a signal is 2 seconds then the frequency will be ________

1 Hertz

Q8.By the_______ applications arose that allowed users to transfer images easily


Q9.The _______ layer is responsible for dialog control and synchronization.


Q10. _______Waves are especially important in information sources because natural phenomena produce it.


Differentiate Synchronous and Asynchronous communication

Synchronous communications

Receiver gets message instantaneously

Asynchronous communications

Receiver gets message after some delay

Define the following characteristics of a signal.

Frequency: The number of oscillations per unit time (usually seconds)

Amplitude: The difference between the maximum and minimum signal heights

Wavelength: The length of a cycle as a signal propagates across a medium, is determined by the speed with which a signal propagates

Define Bit and Baud

Bit is the basic unit of information in computing and digital communications.

Baud is how many times the signal can change per second.

Periodic and (Non) (A) periodic signal

Periodic Signal is a signal which repeats itself after a specific interval of time.

Aperiodic Signal is which does not repeat itself after a specific interval of time.

Modulation and Multiplexing

Modulation refers to the way electromagnetic radiation is used to send information.

Multiplexing refers to the way information from multiple sources is combined for transmission across a shared medium.

TCP/IP suite and OSI model

TCP/IP is the computer networking model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) is a set of internationally recognized, non-proprietary standards for networking and for operating system involved in networking functions.  

Dedicated circuit and Packet switching

A dedicated circuit is defined as - a circuit that serves only that appliance.

Packet-switched networks move data in separate, small blocks -- packets -- based on the destination address in each packet.

How Data Passes through the Layers in OSI. Explain with diagram?

Describe the history and growth of computer networking

Early computer networks were designed when computers were large and expensive, and the main motivation was resource sharing. Networks were devised to connect multiple users. Later networks allowed multiple users to share peripheral devices.

By 1960s ARPA planned to interconnect all computers with a network and devise software that would allow a researcher to use whichever computer was best suited to perform a given task. ARPA did the following to achieve the visionary work: gathered some of the best minds available, focused them on computer network research, and hired contractors to turn the designs into a working system.

In less than 30 years the Internet has grown from an early research prototype connecting a handful of sites to a global communication system the rate of growth has been phenomenal. The internet has had exponential growth for over 25 years Internet has been doubling in size every 9-14 months

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