Molecular biology is the science that studies the structure, function and
other aspects of nucleic acids . All the genetic information is passed from parents to children is in DNA.
Genetic code is the 'dictionary' that matches the language of nucleotides
in the mRNA with the language of amino acids in proteins. It is organised in groups of 3 bases called codons .
Properties of genetic code : It is organized in triplets : eacch amino acid is derermined by 3 nuclotides
It is universal, because all known organisms use it.
It is unidirectional because in translation mRNA is always read in the same
direction It is ambiguous because each triplet have the same amino acid
A mutation is a change in DNA which usually has effects on the expression of genetic
Genetic engineering is a set of techniques used to manipulate an organism's DNA ,is used to produce genetically modified organisms
Technique recombination : Add fragment of other organism DNA , it can be use in
Medicine: producing more effective antibiotics and greater quantities of
specific proteins, such as insulin.
Agriculture; improving yields with crops that are resistant to herbicides or
pests, or that have greater nutritional value.
Livestock: producing animals that grow better, have higher resistance
Waste and pollutant disposal: turning refuse and organic waste into com-
post and humus, clearing up oil spills
Fuel: producing fuels from living organisms or organic waste
Pcr : is a technique that replicates small fragments of DNA in vitro in short periods of time, starting with very small samples.
Can be used : Medicine: forensic medicine and prenatal screening for congenital conditions.
Scientific research: getting DNA copies quickly for use in research
Cloning means using genetic engineering to make identical copies of the
original organism, cell or DNA molecule.