Spanish Restoration Crisis and Transition to Francoism

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regenerationism (2nd stage restoration 20th cent. attempt reform syst & increase social support), parties conservative canovas-->Maura (change law to fight caciquism, compulsory voting, strike regulation, sunday rest & old age/unemployment benefit) liberal sagasta-->canalejas (eliminated consumos tax, compulsory military service, ends quintas, limited church influ) problems loss of colonies, needed em in imperialist era, got north morocco=low resources, BCN TRAGIC WEEK dissatisfaction bc reservist call (trigger), radical ideology, antimaurism & anticlericalism (cyclical), canalejas assassination, 1917 CRISIS unable to keep syst, causes (Spain neutrality in WWI, production & profit growth, same wage but high prices) social crisis (joint strike CNT & UGT to end restoration & new syst, militar repression in strike) militar crisis (discontent bc wages & end war merit morocco) political crisis (parliament cat bourgeoisise & rep + socialist, restoration reforms) consequences (Soviet success = unrest, pistolism & ley de fugas, annuals disaster (militar defeat ending restoration morocco trigger to PR rebellion) = heavy losses) /PRIMO DE RIVERA exit liberal state problems & demand democratization, similar in Europe, reasons coup (get public order, solve morocco problem, fight corruption) succeeded bc Alfonso XIII support (militar dictatorship) measures (iron surgeon = suppress parties, congress, trade unions, constitution, alh-cemas landing = peace in morocco / longer dictatorship = created consultic congress, patriotic union & public works) fall of PR (crisis 1929 = debt & shortages, growing opposition, resignation bc lack support, power back to Alfonso XIII, opposition didn't want king = pact of San Sebastian (political alliance Spain ending PR to end monarchy & get republic) try get republic 1st militar way = failed 2nd electoral win in municipal elections, Alfonso XIII abdicates) /2ND REPUBLIC provisional republican gov, objectives (labourers conditions, worship freedom, decentralization, army under civilian power) 1931 constitution (fundamental law Spain 2nd rep. popular sovereignty, laicism, m decentralization & universal suffrage) reformist biennium rep + socialist, reforms, fall bc riots & gov resigns reforms conservative biennium gov = radical party + CEDA, aim = stop reforms, problems (falange --> attacks worker unions / counter-reforms + fear of liberalism destruction = UGT radicalization bc CEDA into gov = revolt Asturias (imprisonments) Cataluña (no statute) / corrupt gov) popular front 1936 election PF (republicans, nationalists, worker parties) victory, leftists united bc feared fascism & reforms being stopped measures (1934 prisoners freed, restarted reforms, reinstated cat. statute) violence (anarchists occupy land, falange attacks, employer lockouts) conspiracy against gov, coup plans (army, right parties, landowners, economic oligarchy) (mola = Pamplona, Franco = Canarias / aim = dictatorship & reforms / Melilla 17-july) /CIVIL WAR morocco July 36, peninsula day after, coup fails bc success in some areas, PF can't get territories back, PF supported by some part army & nationalist areas, workers, industrialized area = republicans rural = rebel gov, non-intervention committee (international institution created by fr & gb in Spanish civil war didn't want other countries involved in it to avoid WWII)

CIVIL WAR Franco side = better assistance, German aircraft & Italian troops republican = worse support, Soviet Union, international brigades (workers to save rep from fascism) consequences (infrastructure destroyed, economic crisis, urban bombings, repression, similar number killed in combat & repression, exile) /FRANQUISMO pol. syst single party = movement (in all Spanish institutions & decentralized), supreme leader, church support, absolute power (militar caudillo, severe cult, political irresponsibility) Franco = Spain (opinion bt him = op bt Spain), organic democracy (representation based on family, municipality), Cortes had no power, trade unions --> vertical trade union social bases landowners = stop agrarian reform, economic oligarchy = suppress trade unions, church = regained social position, middle class wanted peace, army, new rich = ppl rich bc black market stages1st = autarchy foreign relat. (axis closeness, neutrality, isolation, 50's isolation ends --> anticommunism, cold war US side), gov = fascists = falangists, autarchy, consequence = black market & ration cards (document Spain Francoism distributed food in low amounts that increased black market) --> impoverishment bankrupt 2nd = developmentalism(2nd stage dictatorship Spain 60's created economic growth bc liberal measures) gov = technocrats, economic liberalism, consequence = introduced foreign emigration & tourists --> ec. growth, rising services & industries 3rd stage economic problem = oil crisis --> unemployment & social unrest, political = failed power separation, Carrero Blanco death led to fight between bunker (keepers) & liberals (liberal democracy), Franco bad health, colonial = clash w/morocco = green march in Sahara

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