Spanish Monarchs: Carlos V, Felipe II, Felipe III

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CARLOS V of the Holy Roman Empire

- Inheritance Maternal: Castilla, Navarra, Aragon, and Territories Italy

- Inheritance Paternal: German Lands, Netherlands, Franche-Comté

- Domestic Policy: Uprisings against a Foreign King: 1. The Revolt of Comuneros in Castilla: Nobles, Bourgeoisie, and Peasants increasing taxes/Battle of Villalar 1521/Bravo, Padilla, Maldonado were killed. 2. Germania Revolts in Valencia and Mallorca: The nobility and the rebels were defeated.

- Foreign Policy: 1. The Papacy was afraid of Carlos V's imperial power. 2. France was surrounded by the territories of the empire, and King Francoise I fought Carlos V. 3. Defending Christianity, Carlos V took Tunis defeated in Algiers

Conflicts with Protestants

4. He defeated the German Protestant princesses who supported Lutheranism/Peace of Augsburg: Religious freedom; each prince could choose the religion of their subjects

5. Financial Problems: Expensive wars and management of officials/the Hacienda Real went into debt. The gold and silver from America were not enough.

FELIPE II Domestic Policy

1. Defense of Catholicism: Resistance to the spread of Protestant Reformation: - He forbade the Castilians to study at foreign universities - The Inquisition became more powerful - The revolt of the Moriscos in the Alpujarras. 2. Unrest in Aragon: Antonio Perez was accused of murder. He fled to Aragon and asked for protection from the Supreme Justice. Aragon refused to send him back to Castilla. A revolt broke out, which the king defeated, and he reduced Aragonese autonomy of the fueros.

Foreign Policy: 1. France. The French were defeated at the Battle of St. Quentin, followed by the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis. 2. The Turks: Felipe II created the Holy League (the Papacy, Venice, and other Italian states). He defeated them at the Battle of Lepanto. 3. Portugal. Felipe II forced the Parliament of Tomar to accept him as a king; he claimed the throne through his mother Isabel. 4. England: Felipe II planned to invade it, but the Spanish Armada was defeated. 5. The Netherlands: The Calvinists opposed the King and declared independence under the name of the United Provinces


Felipe III 1 He left political decisions to a royal favorite or valido, the Duke of Lerma 2 Domestic Policy: The expulsion of the Moriscos, a hard-working minority, damaged the economy 3 Foreign Policy: Peace with England/ The Twelve Years Truce with the Dutch/ The Third Year War, Spain helped Australia

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