Spanish Constitutions and Colonial Expansion: A Historical Overview

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Spanish Constitutions in the 19th Century

  • 1812 (La Pepa, Moderate)
  • 1837 (Progressive)
  • 1845 (Conservative)
  • 1869 (Progressive)
  • 1876 (Conservative)

Order of Events

  • Godoy's resignation
  • Creation of the Supreme Central Junta
  • Adoption of La Pepa
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau
  • Accession of Joseph I

Goya's Influence

Goya's expressions and feelings paved the way for many movements in the 19th and 20th centuries. His paintings reflected contemporary style and influenced other painters.

Carlist and Liberal Arguments

Carlist: Privileged had to pay taxes, absolute power to the king, and traditional institutions. Liberal: Fiscal reform, dissolution of manorialism, abolition of guilds.

Role of the Army in 19th Century Spain

The army's role resulted in the prestige of military officials, some of whom became involved in politics. Electoral fraud, pronunciamientos, and revolutionary civilian groups forced the army to act as a mediator between opposing political groups.

Sinking of the USS Maine

The explosion was caused by a fire or a failure, not by a Spanish mine or act of sabotage. The USS Maine was carrying large amounts of gunpowder, making an explosion the most coherent hypothesis.

Major Colonial Empires

  • Great Britain: From Cairo to Cape Town (Africa), India, Egypt, Sudan, Nigeria, Kenya, Canada, Australia, New Zealand
  • France: Northwest Equatorial and Southeast Africa
  • Germany: Cameroon, Malaysia (Dutch)
  • Belgium: Belgian Congo
  • Portugal: Angola, Mozambique
  • Spain: Morocco
  • Italy: Libya, Somalia

Colonial Expansion Outside Europe

  • United States: Pacific and Caribbean (The Philippines, Cuba, Panama, Puerto Rico)
  • Japan: Kuril Islands, Korea, Formosa (Taiwan)

Effects of Colonial Expansion on Indigenous People

Indigenous people lost their land, resources, connection to ancestors in burial places, and control over their lives. Traditional structures, institutions, and families broke down.

Factors of Imperialism in the 19th Century

  • Economic: Industrial revolution stimulated the hunt for colonies
  • Political: Every country wanted national hegemony
  • Cultural, Military, and Religious factors: Exploration, economic expansion, increased political power, diffusion of ideological beliefs, spreading of religious beliefs and practices to others

Key Events

  • Mutiny of Aranjuez: 17-18th March 1808
  • Liberal Triennium: Between 1820 and 1823
  • Cuban Independence: 24th February 1895 - 10th December 1898
  • First Republic: 11th February 1873 - 29th December 1874

Consequences of World War 1

The war caused deaths (10 million soldiers) and a large number of civilian casualties due to malnutrition and disease, resulting in a demographic decline. It led to the loss of European hegemony, government debt, reduction in European industry, and the rise of the US economy. New nations were formed, and great empires came to an end. Treaties were created to find peace.

Order of Events in World War 1

Assassination in Sarajevo - Germany invades Belgium - Ottoman Empire enters war - US joins war - Russia withdraws


  • First oil well (1859)
  • Livingstone and Stanley meet each other (1871)
  • Fashoda incident (1892)
  • Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901)

Key Terms

  • Pronunciamiento: A military revolution that aims to overthrow a government
  • Census suffrage: The right to vote only for a part of the population with certain characteristics
  • Isabelino: A person belonging to any of the queens of Spain and the UK called Isabel
  • Salic law: A law excluding females from dynastic succession
  • Berlin Conference: A meeting to discuss the partitioning of Africa among western countries
  • Opium Wars: Wars that forced China to open up to Western trade
  • Boer Wars: Wars between Great Britain and Dutch settlers due to the discovery of large gold deposits
  • Suez Canal: An artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt connecting the Mediterranean and Red Seas
  • Telegraph Code: One of the character encodings used to transmit information by telegraphy
  • Henry Ford: American businessman and entrepreneur, founder of the Ford car company
  • Taylorism: Division of production tasks to increase productivity
  • Impressionism: Artistic movement emphasizing light and color over form
  • Arms Race: Competition between nations for superiority in the development and accumulation of weapons
  • League of Nations: International diplomatic group developed after World War 1 to solve disputes between countries
  • Wilson's 14 Points: A manifesto based on Wilson's vision for peace
  • Trench Warfare: A type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other
  • Schlieffen Plan: A German military plan for a quick attack on France and Russia
  • War Reparations: A levy on a defeated country to pay some of the war costs of the winning countries
  • Battle of Verdun: The biggest and longest battle of World War 1 between French and German armies
  • Brest-Litovsk Treaty: A peace treaty between the German Empire, Bulgaria, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and Soviet Union

Rivals of the German Empire

Germany fought against the Allied Powers, including Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Romania, Japan, the United States, Portugal, Albania, Serbia, Montenegro, Belgium, Greece, and more.

Reasons for Germany's Surrender

Germany was defeated on the Western Front at the Second Battle of Marne. Revolts in the German army and navy, as well as workers' demonstrations against the government, led to Germany's surrender.


Propaganda was employed on a global scale during World War 1. Both sides used propaganda to shape international opinion and mobilize people against the enemy, invoking feelings of patriotism.

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