Spanish Civil War: Causes, Supporters, and Evolution

Classified in History

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  • Root Causes:

    • Socio-economic imbalance
    • Privileged social groups opposed the Republicans' reforms
    • Workers' disillusionment at the slowness of Republican reforms
    • Tradition of army intervention
  • Immediate Causes:

    • Political violence
    • Deterioration of public order
    • Coup led by Sanjurjo, Mola, Franco, Godet, Queipo de Llano


  • In Favor of the Coup:
    • Anti-Republicans
    • Falangists
    • Monarchists
    • Landowners
    • Church
    • Part of the army
    • Traditionalists
  • Against the Coup:
    • Part of the military
    • National Police
    • Assault Guard
    • Working class
    • Part of the middle class

International Intervention:

  • France and UK remained neutral
  • No intervention, no help
  • Non-Intervention Committee
  • USSR sent weapons and money to the Communist Party
  • International Brigades to fight for democracy
  • Germany and Italy supported the coup

Inner Organization:

  • Republic:
    • Part wanted social revolution, part wanted to win the war
    • Constant international fights
    • Repression by church, bourgeoisie, and Popular Front
  • Rebels:
    • Objective to defeat Republicans and implement dictatorship
    • Harsh repression, intimidation, arrests, imprisonment

Formed Forces:

  • Republic:
    • Part of the army, militians, international brigades
  • Rebels:
    • New trained army


  • 1936: Troops from Africa joined the coup, Western regions followed
  • 1937: Rebels advanced towards the north, industrial areas
  • 1938: Rebels advanced towards the Mediterranean coast, Catalonia separated
  • Battle of the Ebro was significant
  • 1939: Catalonia taken, Madrid to follow, war ends on April 1st

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