Shanghai Massacres and Extermination Campaigns: Consequences, Long March, Xi'an Incident, and Reforms

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Shanghai Massacres and Extermination Campaigns

  • NRA liberated Shanghai from the warlords
  • Chiang feared a general strike and a CCP takeover
  • Chiang attacked and killed anyone suspected to be communist
  • White Terror, many casualties

Consequences of the Massacres

  • Failed to crush communists
  • Split within the KMT, and Chiang expelled from the party
  • Policy of the united front between KMT and Communists was affirmed
    • Policy meant peace between both parties
    • In a near future calling for elections for rightful power in China
  • Stalin rejected this policy
  • CCP weakened
  • KMT was united again, Chiang was leader again
  • CCP tried Stalin's aggressive policy, were crushed each time
  • KMT broke off all relations with the CCP
  • 1927 was disastrous for CCP
  • New Soviet advisers were sent into CCP, it was now fully under Soviet influence

Long March 1934-35

  • CCP's survival was the creation of 12 rural bases in remote regions
  • There they could recruit local peasants desperate because of bad harvest and such
  • KMT was distracted by Japan, resumed campaign, CCP had to evacuate
  • KMT interrupted by Japan again, negotiated a ceasefire
  • KMT cut off food supplies, sent Nationalist forces by land and air, CCP had to evacuate to an even more remote location
  • This led to the Long March, lasted a year and covered 8000km2
    • Hostile territories, defend against KMT, warlords' attacks, disease, hypothermia, and starvation
    • Ten thousand communists made it out, but how?
      • Warlords couldn't be trusted, helped Mao and CCP
      • Chiang's operations were ruined by harsh weather
      • Miscalculations in surprise operations against CCP
      • Mao gained support along the way from peasants
      • Chiang was distracted by Japan

The Xi'an Incident

  • CCP wasn't safe from KMT
  • Chiang was kidnapped, CCP strengthens
  • Chiang accused of appeasement
  • Mao accused Chiang of appeasing Japan
  • Chiang was actually strengthening and buying armaments against Japan
  • However, this was secret, so Chiang couldn't retaliate Mao's accusations
  • CCP gained support from warlords and Chinese patriotic
  • Chiang wanted to first get rid of CCP, then Japan
  • Mao responded by creating a united front (KMT, CCP, and warlords) against Japan

The Kidnapping of Chiang and Its Consequences

  • Chiang was rounded up and imprisoned
  • Mao demanded Chiang's elimination but was overruled by Stalin
  • He believed that the best leader to fight a war against Japan was Chiang
  • Chiang was freed, and a united front was formed between KMT and CCP

Attempts at Modernization and Reform

  • Chiang couldn't modernize China because of CCP and preparations for the Japanese war
  • Chiang reappointed head of the KMT government
  • KMT wing had relations with CCP, but they cut them off
  • Two wings of KMT were reunited again
  • KMT wanted a government without Chiang, who had forcibly resigned
  • Communist uprising and so Chiang was the KMT leader once more
  • Chiang won support from many groups in China
  • Communists were marginalized

The New Government and Administration

  • Chiang created a new blueprint for China, of five departments which controlled the business of government
  • 'Parliament' was made, an unelected body, members appointed by the government
  • Chiang was a dictator
  • A party dictatorship was established to impose regime on China
  • Tight control over press, education, and arts
  • Police and Blue Shirts conducted a reign of terror against dissidents

Economic and Financial Reforms

  • Ambitious plans for financial, agricultural, and industrial reforms
  • Enlightened reforms, if they would've been effective, would've undermined CCP
  • Ambitious plans were impossible to be made
    • China was still divided
    • Warlords, though defeated, were not eliminated completely
    • Money was spent on military forces against CCP, warlords, or Japan
    • No money left for said ambitious plans
  • In the countryside, nothing changed much, so it was easy for the CCP to gain support from peasants and farm people

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