The Rise of Modern Spain: From Industrial Revolution to La Pepa

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1. Causes of the Demographic Revolution in Britain

Nutrition: Better nutrition made people more resistant to illness, thanks to advances in agriculture and improved diets.

Personal and Public Hygiene: People used soap and cotton clothes, had access to clean water, and streets were cleaner.

Public Health: In 1796, Edward Jenner invented the vaccine. New hospitals were built.

Epidemics: Fewer deaths occurred due to better nutrition, hygiene, and healthcare.

2. Factors Influencing the Demographic Revolution


  • Extensive markets
  • Abundance of iron and coal
  • New mentality

3. Industrial Revolutions

First Industrial Revolution

  • Textile industry
  • Railways
  • Coal

Second Industrial Revolution

  • Oil
  • Large businesses

4. Social Classes

Higher Class

  • Industrialists

Middle Class

  • Tradesmen
  • Army officers

Lower Class

: protestants, house servants. Higher class: industrialists.5. Diferences between anarchism and marxism. Anarchism: opposed any form of state, hope to replaced with volunteers and associations. Collective use of property, no polithical parties or elections. Trade unions and strikes were revolutionary instruments. Marxism: The bourgeoisie were oppressors, owned production and exploted workers. Proposed revolutions againts capitalism, want the proletarian dictatorship to control society, Max believed the labour parties and trade unions should participate in politics.

6. La Pepa. Pepa: During the Spanish War of Independence the juntas established a parliament in Cádiz. Its purpose was to govern Spain in the name of Ferdinand, and write a constitution, adoped on 19 March 1812, and is known as "LA PEPA", the first spanish constitution. Parliament’s representatives were liberals who believed in the Enlightenment. The constitution included many political reforms and gave new rights to citizens. The parliament abolished the Inquisition, and introduced economic reforms. Political reforms: popular/national sovereignty​,based on universal suffrage for men; Ferdinand VII king, butthere was separation of powers; the government’s purposeis are to ​ensure the happiness of the people. MAS Pepa por detras!!!!

(pepa) Rights: freedom​ of speech and of thepress; equality before the law​, and end of privileges to nobles; right to ​private property and to​ education; abolition of torture.7. Define. Desamortizacion: process of land reform used by liberals They nationalised land, this means State took lands owned by the municipalities and the Church,and sold them for the highest price. Bourbon restoration: When Napoleon's army lost the war. Criollos: People that wanted to control independent states. First carlist war: a war in 1833-1840 between people who suported Charles and the moderates who supported Isabel II. 8. Tabla. Progresist: central goverment, more freedoms. Moderates: desamortizacion, popular sovernity.

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