The Rise of Fascism and World War II

Classified in History

Written at on English with a size of 3.41 KB.

The Rise of Fascism

A. Causes of Fascism

  1. Dissatisfaction with peace agreements after World War I.
  2. Post-war crises: economic depression, unemployment, inflation, and social unrest, which fueled revolutionary movements and frightened conservative sectors of society.

B. Creation of Fascism in Italy

Benito Mussolini, a journalist, spearheaded the fascist movement in Italy.

C. Foundation of the Fascist Party (1921)

Mussolini's fascist party used parliamentary groups to suppress the workers' movement, including groups like the Italian Combat Squad and the Blackshirts.

D. Support for Fascism

Fascism gained support from large landowners, the petite bourgeoisie, the Church, and King Emmanuel III.

E. Fascist Paramilitary Groups

The Fascist party organized paramilitary groups known as "Combat Squads."

F. March on Rome (1922)

The Fascists' "March on Rome" led to King Emmanuel III appointing Mussolini as Prime Minister.

G. Characteristics of the Fascist Dictatorship

  • Complete control over the country.
  • Restriction of freedoms.
  • Prohibition of political parties.
  • Repression of trade unions and opposition groups using secret police.
  • Control over all aspects of social life through:
  1. Propaganda
  2. Censorship

The Rise of Nazism in Germany

H. Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party

Nazism, a similar ideology to Fascism, arose in Germany under Adolf Hitler.

I. Foundation of the Nazi Party (1920)

The National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party) was founded in 1920.

J. Nazi Paramilitary Groups and the Third Reich

The Nazi party had paramilitary groups called "Storm Troopers" (Sturmabteilung, SA) and "Protection Squad" (Schutzstaffel, SS). Hitler's dictatorship was called the "Third Reich."

Features of Hitler's Dictatorship

  • Dissolution of other political parties.
  • Prohibition of trade unions.
  • Elimination of fundamental freedoms and rights.
  • Control over education through propaganda and censorship.
  • Promotion of social cohesion based on the idea of an "Aryan race" and persecution of Jews.

World War II


World War II lasted from September 1939 to August 1945.

Key Events

  • 1935: German incorporation of the Saarland.
  • 1935: Italian invasion of Ethiopia.
  • 1936: German remilitarization of the Rhineland.
  • 1938: German annexation of Austria (Anschluss).
  • 1938: German annexation of the Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia).
  • 1939: German annexation of the rest of Czechoslovakia.
  • 1939: Italian annexation of Albania.
  • 1939: The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact) is signed on August 23, 1939. The pact included a secret clause for the partition of Poland between Germany and the USSR.

Main Participants

  • **Axis Powers:** Germany, Italy, Japan (main); Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Finland, and Austria.
  • **Allied Powers:** UK, USSR, France, and the US (main); Poland, Belgium, Holland, China, Norway, Yugoslavia, Brazil.

Other Historical Events

  • **General Strike of 1917:** A significant labor strike primarily in mining and industrial areas of Europe, where labor, socialist, and anarchist movements were strong.

Entradas relacionadas: