The Rise of Christian Kingdoms in Medieval Iberia

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Coexistence and Conflict

Q: How long did Al-Andalus and the Christian kingdoms coexist?

A: They coexisted for nearly 800 years.

Early Resistance: Pelayo and the Battle of Covadonga

Q: Who was Pelayo, and what did he do?

A: Pelayo was one of the most important kings in the early Christian kingdoms. He organized the Battle of Covadonga in 722.

Q: Why did he go to prison?

A: Pelayo went to prison because he didn't pay taxes to the Muslim rulers.

Expansion and Consolidation

Q: What happened during the reign of Alfonso III?

A: Alfonso III changed the capital of the Kingdom of Asturias from Oviedo to Leon.

Q: Who was Fernán González, and what role did he play in the development of Castile?

A: Fernán González was a count who helped Castile become independent from the Kingdom of Leon.

The Reign of Sancho III the Great

Q: Who was Sancho III the Great?

A: Sancho III became the most powerful Christian king on the Iberian Peninsula. However, his kingdom fragmented after his death.

Q: Which lands did Sancho III govern?

A: His kingdom included counties in Aragon, Castile, and Navarre.

The Rise of Castile

Q: When did the County of Castile become a kingdom?

A: The County of Castile became a kingdom in the 11th century when Fernando I inherited it.

Q: What was the main and first Crown in the Iberian Peninsula?

A: The first and main crown was the Crown of Castile.

Fernando I and the Legacy of El Cid

Q: Who was Fernando I?

A: Fernando I was Sancho III's son. He married the princess of Leon and became king of both Castile and Leon.

Q: According to popular tradition, El Cid fought for religious reasons. Do you think this is true?

A: No, El Cid fought for money and titles. He was a mercenary.

Q: What was the real name of El Cid?

A: His real name was Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar.

Q: Why was he so famous?

A: He is famous because it is said that he won a battle after his death.

Q: Did a knight like El Cid obey the king without question?

A: No, El Cid did not always obey the king. They did not get along well because El Cid believed the king had killed Sancho.

Aragon, Navarre, and the House of Trastámara

Q: Who was Alfonso I, the Battler?

A: Alfonso I was an important king of Aragon and Navarre in the 12th century. Both kingdoms remained united until his death, after which Navarre became independent, and Aragon chose Alfonso's brother as its king.

Q: Define the House of Trastámara.

A: The House of Trastámara was a dynasty of kings on the Iberian Peninsula that ruled Castile starting in the 14th century. It was a relatively weak dynasty, often controlled by nobles and the Church.

Economic and Political Developments

Q: What was the main economic activity in Castile?

A: The most important economic activity in Castile was Merino sheep farming.

Q: What were the consequences of forbidding the export of wool?

A: Forbidding the export of wool angered the Church and nobles, who relied on the trade. This led to a civil war, which they ultimately won.

The Catholic Monarchs and the Completion of the Reconquista

Q: Who were the Catholic Monarchs?

A: The Catholic Monarchs were Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. Their marriage united both crowns under one family.

Q: What house did the Catholic Monarchs belong to?

A: The Catholic Monarchs belonged to the House of Trastámara.

Q: When was the Reconquista completed?

A: The Reconquista, the Christian reconquest of Iberia, was completed in 1492.

Q: When did the fall of Al-Andalus begin?

A: The fall of Al-Andalus began with the Christian victory at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, after which the Christian kingdoms united their forces and pushed back against Muslim rule.

Military Orders

Q: Define the military orders.

A: Military orders were Christian societies of knights dedicated to warfare and prayer, operating under the king's authorization. They played a significant role in the military conquests of Muslim territories and were granted large tracts of land as rewards. Several different military orders existed, including Santiago, Calatrava, Montesa, and Alcántara.

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