The Restoration of Absolutism and the Rise of Nationalism: Congress of Vienna and Revolutions in Europe

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The Restoration of Absolutism: The countries that defeated Napoleon met at the Congress of Vienna.

Ideas: Restoring absolutism with legitimism in France and Spain to stop liberalism and nationalism. Balance of powers between European countries. The Holy Alliance Treaty with Russia, Prussia, and Austria, and the Quadruple Alliance with the previous countries plus Britain.

Revolutions in 1830: Nationalism and liberalism became popular. The revolution started in France where Charles, an absolute monarch, was replaced by Louis Philippe of Orleans as a constitutional monarch.

The Spring of Nations: The unification of Italy and Germany, and the independence of the Russian, Ottoman, and Austrian empires. There were revolts, the most important ones in Vienna, Hungary, and their Italian and German territories. In France, the Second Republic was proclaimed in Paris, embracing liberalism ideas such as universal male suffrage and press freedom. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte won the elections and proclaimed himself emperor.

Nationalism: The right of nations to create their own state. Nationalism arose to fight Napoleon's invasions. There are two types: unification of countries divided into states and independence from empires or states with different cultures.

Greek Independence: Greeks fought for their freedom from the Ottoman Empire. They faced high taxes and were dominated by a different culture and religion.

Belgian Independence: Belgium was part of the Kingdom of Holland.

Italian Unification: Italy was divided into states, including Piedmont-Sardinia, the Kingdom of Sicily, and parts of the Austrian Empire. The Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia declared war on Austria, resulting in the acquisition of Lombardy, while Garibaldi defeated the Bourbons.

German Unification: Germany consisted of different states, with Prussia and the Austrian Empire being the most powerful. Prussia's proclamation of the Second German Empire made German unification possible.

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