The Second Republic: Municipal Elections, Proclamation, and Controversial Constitution

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On April 12th, municipal elections were held, leading to a victory for republican parties. Two days later, on April 14th, the Second Republic was proclaimed, and King Alfonso went into exile.

  1. Provisional Government until the Constitution was passed in October 1931

Headed by Niceto Alcalá-Zamora, the Provisional Government included other relevant figures such as Miguel Maura, Manuel Azaña, and Larroux.

By May, there was an outburst of violence, with churches and convents being burnt to the ground in some cities.

In June 1931, the Constituent Cortes were elected to draft a Constitution that was finally passed in October 1931. This constitution addressed controversial issues concerning the Catholic Church, leading to the resignation of Maura and Alcalá-Zamora. It strictly controlled Church property and prohibited religious orders from engaging in education. The most controversial article was number 26.

Ever since, the right began to react. The CEDA (Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas) was established, with its main idea being that, as long as the common good was achieved, the form of government was not that relevant.

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