The New Man: Humanist Vision
The new man: humanists proposed a new vision of man as the most perfect of God's creations. They considered him the center of universal interest. Freedom and reason: they believed that God had created man as a free being responsible for his actions and capable of rational thought. Scientific interest: in order to expand their knowledge, they used observation and experimentation. Human progress: humanist thought was optimistic. Intellectuals believed in God and the Christian faith. Rediscovery of antiquity: the teachings of classical authors such as Plato and Aristotle were a model for intellectual, social, and political behavior and education.
Demographic and Economic Recovery
In the second half of the 15th century, Europe entered a period of demography and economic recovery. During this time, the bourgeoisie prospered and the monarchy became a more powerful force. As the major epidemics disappeared and the birth rate increased, the population rose to 70 million people. In that century, the monarchs took back the power that the feudal nobility had accumulated during the Middle Ages. The economic power of the bourgeoisie did not come from the land, as with the nobility, but from capital and investments in profitable activities such as trade, manufacturing, and banking.
Burnt at the Stake: Capital Punishment
Burnt at the stake: death by burning is an execution method involving combustion or exposure to extreme heat. It has a long history as a form of capital punishment, and many societies have employed it for criminal activities. Roman Inquisition: was an ecclesiastical court that persecuted and punished those who deviated from the dogmas of the church. Papal Bulls: in Roman Catholicism, an official papal letter or document. By the 13th century, the term was being used only for the most important documents issued by the Pope.