Radical Reconstruction: A Turning Point in American History

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The successor of Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, was identified as the leader of the 'honest yeomen' (1865-1869). Also, his political skills attracted the public opinion around the states. His politics offered pardons to the white in the southern elite and accepting local affairs to be managed by the new states government. This government started developing new laws restricting blacks of their freedom. Afterwards, republicans called for the dissolution of the government of Johnson and the guarantee of the right to vote for black men. History shows us that most republicans were moderated rather than radicals, but they bill to the congress to extend the life of the Freedmen's Bureau. In the 14 Amendment, blacks were not granted to vote but it placed in the constitution the principle of Citizenship to protect the rights of all Americans that were born in USA. In 1868, Grant won the presidential elections and the 15 Amendment was ratified two years later (1870). This Amendment did not extend women to vote but it accepted every citizen to vote with no distinctions of race.

During the Radical Reconstruction in the South around 2 thousand African-Americans occupied public offices including Senate (2), and House of Representatives (14). Also, every state helped to finance railroad even the economic development in Southern states remained weak.

The period of the 'Overthrow of Reconstruction' a terrorist organization was found with the name of 'Ku Klux Klan' against the republican's leader blacks and white (1866). As a result, a massacre took place in the state of Louisiana in 1873. Later on, the congress and president Grants put an end to this terrorist organization. In the North, the 1873's depression distracted the North from reconstruction, but the Supreme Court guaranteed blacks rights. The Bargain elections of 1877 between Republicans and Democrats led to a dispute of few states and the congress set up and Electoral commission to determine the winner. Hayes and the democrats had a free hand in the south and this reconstruction ended in 1877, nearly a century to bring equal rights to the descendants of slaves.

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