From Progressive 2-Years to the Glorious Revolution (1854-1868)
Progressive 2-Years (1854-1856)
Narvaez's power was becoming more and more dictatorial, which provoked discontent and ended in a coup d'etat by General O'Donnell. He published the Manzanares Manifesto and obtained wide popular backing. He created a new political party: the Liberal Union (between moderates and progressives).
Finally, the coup d'etat was successful and Espartero returned and formed a government.
In this time, some measures were adopted such as the Madoz disentitlement, the elaboration of a new progressive constitution (never applied) by the Constituent Courts, and the creation of the Railroad Law for economic modernization.
New political groups appeared:
Democrats: asked for universal suffrage and support of government for citizens
Republicans: defended the abolishment of the king
Socialists: they were in favor of workers, against private property
Federalists: in favor of territorial sovereignty
The return of moderates to power (1856-1858)
The increase of social disorder provoked the break between Espartero and O'Donnell. O'Donnell left the government and later Narvaez and the moderates returned. This means the 1845 Constitution came into force again.
O'Donnell's Liberal Union (1858-1863)
After those moderate two years, O'Donnell returned to power in 1858. This period was marked by economic euphoria (thanks to the railroad) and foreign intervention.
The return of the moderates (1863-1868)
In 1863, Narvaez returned into force with the moderates for the last time.