Photosynthesis and Efficient Adaptations for Multicellular Organisms

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Photosynthesis produces glucose using

Photosynthesis produces food in plants, called glucose. It happens in chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, that absorbs sunlight and uses its energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose. Oxygen is also produced. EQUATION: CARBON DIOXIODE + WATER= GLUCOSE + OKYGEN. Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy.

Adaptation for efficient photosynthesis

Leaves are broad so there is a large surface area exposed to light. Most of chloroplasts are found in the palaside layer. This is so that they are near the top of the leaf where they can get the most light. The upper epidermis is transparent so that light can pass through it to the palisade layer. Leaves have a network of vascular bundles, they transport vessels xylem and phloem. Deliver water and other nutrients.


Nitrates: Contain nitrogen for making amino acids and proteins. These are needed for cell growth. Plants without enough nitrates will be stunted and have yellow older leaves. Phosphates: Contain phosphorus for making dna and cell membranes needed for respiration and growth. Plants without enough phosphate will have a poor root growth and purple older leaves. Potassium: To help the enzymes needed for photosynthesis and respiration. If there is no potassium in soil plants will have poor flower and fruit growth and discoloured leaves.


-The cells need a variety of subtances like water, minerals and sugars. In unicellular organisms, substances can diffuse directly into and out of the cell across the cell membrane. Diffusion is quicker because of short distances. In multicellular organisms direct diffusion from the outer surface is too slow. Multicellular organisms need transport systems: XYLEM TUBES TRANSPORT WATER AND MINERALS IN THE TRANSPIRATION SYSTEM. PHLOEM TUBES TRANSPORT FOOD THIS IS KNOWN AS TRANSLOCATION. TRANSPIRATION: Is the loss of water from the plant: It is caused by evaporation and diffusion of water from a plants surface, it happens mostly at the leaves. This evaporation creates a slight shortage of water in the leaf. More water is drawn up from the roots, so there is a constant transparation stream of water through the plant.


-Light intensity: The brighter the light the greater the transpiration rate. -Temperature: The warmer it is, the fastest transpiration happens. -Wind Speed: The higher the wind speed around a leaf, the greater the transpiration rate. -Humidity: The drier the air around a leaf, the faster transpiration happens.

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