Pharmacology 2: Pharmacodynamics, Anti-inflammatories, and Homeostasis

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Pharmacology 2

Dependence: physical response, addiction: behavioral.

Pharmacodynamic principle Placebo effect: patient experiencing relief of symptoms or effect that cannot be attributed to medication. Receptor theory; receptor site, binding site for drug molecule, lock & key. Responses agonist(enhances support encourages response) antagonist( inhibits response drug fits receptor but fails to initiate) neutral(no response). Dose response relationship: inc drug concentration =inc potential receptor site=inc biological effect. Steady state: maintaining blood levels within therapeutic range.

Anti-inflammatories: Steroids: end in -one. NSAIDS: selective(COX2 inhibit celebrex) non selective: upset stomach (salicylates, propionic acid, enolic acid, acetic acid)

Indications NSAIDS inflammation pain swelling and stiffness fever, dysmenorrhea (menstrual cramps). coagulation disordersSteroids Inflammatory disorders, Immunosuppressant, Endocrine disorders Adverse effects NSAIDS GI ailments, Renal/hepatic toxicity. Allergic reactions. Platelet aggregation, CNS dysfunction, Osteoblast activity, Protein synthesis Steroids Adrenocortical suppression, Catabolism Drug interactions NSAIDS Corticosteroids,, Anti-coagulants, Alcohol (liver issues)  Steroids NSAIDs Diabetic medsNSAIDs Dosage T1/2 dependent Long t1/2 (>6 hours) Anti-inflammatory dose > analgesic dose

Chapter 2

Homeostasis: dynamic, internal physiological equilibrium.  Pathophysiology: physiologic changes related to disease, illness, or trauma Pathology responses: adapt or die atrophy- decrease in muscle size hypertrophy- increase in muscle size hyperplasia- new muscle cells metaplasia- reversible dysplasia neoplasia- malignancy / severe rapid growth of undifferentiated cells Tissue healing: Process regeneration vs. fibrosis (scarring) physiology labile cells – regenerate continually (bone, skin, liver cells, RBC’s) stabile cells – cells that get some/limited regeneration permanent cells – no regeneration at all (CNS, brain) Tissue healing: Variables age severity primary healing minor wound, close approximation secondary healing significant wound, poor approximation patient health nutrition, altitude (exposure to oxygen) Inflammation normal, necessary, protective process chemically mediated responses vascular cellular proliferation fibroblasts secrete collagen to form a scar scar tissue remodeling collagen reorganization/maturation type: immature to mature

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