Fascism originated in Italy after World War I and later spread to other countries of Europe. There are three key characteristics:
This is the supremacy of the state, which means the state comes before individual rights. Propaganda was used to gain people's loyalty.
Ultra-Nationalism, Imperialism, and Militarism
This was an aggressive foreign policy of territorial expansions that sought to provide the state with more living space. It had a lot of racism and xenophobia because the nation was defined by race.
Capitalism is allowed, but the main goal is to achieve national self-sufficiency through extreme protectionism. The state establishes corporations of business owners and workers, cooperation is encouraged, and class differences are ignored.
Women had a stronger presence in the job market, replacing men who went to war. Workers' parties and labor unions were strengthened. Optimism was replaced with pessimism and disillusionment.
Nationalism: The defeat of the Central Powers marked the end of the last empires on the continent: the Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian empires. The failure of peace: so much hate had been accumulated that it was impossible to establish a lasting peace. It did not last for more than one generation.