The Origins and Characteristics of Fascism in Europe

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Fascism originated in Italy after World War I and later spread to other countries of Europe. There are three key characteristics:


This is the supremacy of the state, which means the state comes before individual rights. Propaganda was used to gain people's loyalty.

Ultra-Nationalism, Imperialism, and Militarism

This was an aggressive foreign policy of territorial expansions that sought to provide the state with more living space. It had a lot of racism and xenophobia because the nation was defined by race.

Economic Control

Capitalism is allowed, but the main goal is to achieve national self-sufficiency through extreme protectionism. The state establishes corporations of business owners and workers, cooperation is encouraged, and class differences are ignored.

Social Consequences

Women had a stronger presence in the job market, replacing men who went to war. Workers' parties and labor unions were strengthened. Optimism was replaced with pessimism and disillusionment.

Political Consequences

Nationalism: The defeat of the Central Powers marked the end of the last empires on the continent: the Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian empires. The failure of peace: so much hate had been accumulated that it was impossible to establish a lasting peace. It did not last for more than one generation.

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